The first site of interaction between European and Ameirca beople was
The carribean, and the Taino were the prominent people in that region
Cultivate manioc, lived in small villiages under the authority of chiefs,a nd showed interst in things like glass beads, metal tools that the spanish brought
Where was the base of Spanish operaitons in the carribean?
Hispaniola, wh. Santo Domingo was foudned in 1498..and it was the trading capial.
What was very clear about the Americas?
THey offered no silk or spices of r the European market
did the settlers first attempt to make money by?
Mining gold, where usage f the Taino was popular
What were the social classes?
Encomenderos (settlers), and Tainos, who they abused a lot
What dieases ravaged the area?
small pox and othe rthings
What are soem words fo the Tiano tha tusrvive?
Canoe, Hammock,Hurricane, maize, BArbecue, Tobacco
Who came to the Carribean with the intention of establishin gplantations>
Frnehc,English, Dutch...it would have good crops in sugar and tobacco
Conqurors..suhc as Hernan Cortes and Francisoc Pizzaro
What was teh type of socity that spanish found>
THey found societies quite differen tform those of the Caribbean islands. Both MExioc and Peru had been the sites of iddfferent agricultural societies, and,
When did the Conquest of Meixco begin?
With a search for gold, 11519, Cortes led a search, to MExico. they seized teh empeor,,,, and Cuahtemoc was the last leader
What gave an advntage to the Spanish?
Their Steel swords, muskets, cannons, and horses offered Crotes and his soldiers some advantage over he forces they met and help to account for the Pnish conquest
What was the diesease that ravaged the place?
How was Francisco Pizzaro able to take advantage of the Inca Empire?
He came during a time of a dispute, between Huascar, and Atahualpa. PIzzaro exploited both of them, between different those factions and were able o get lots of gold
Pizzaro spared the leader Altahualpa and until he had
The conquests of MExoc came by
individual efforts, hte people who conquereod could allocate lands
What were the two new colonies?
New Spain-Mexico, and New Castile-Peru
How was the power base designed?
There were viceroys, the kings reps in the Ameiras. THe Audeinces herd appeals agaisnt the vicerosy decisions and policies and had the right to address the conerns
What were some new cities?
St. Augustine in Florida, Lima, Panama
What did the Treaty of Tordesillas allow?
Divided the world along an imaginary norht-south 370 leagues west, anad said some is Spain and th eothers is portugals
Who breifly stopped in Brazil?
Pedro Alvares de Cabral
What were the cities iof the Iberian Empirs like? THey became centers of European style society in the ameircas: the Spires of chuches and cathedrals defined thier skulies and Spaish and Protugese were the languages of the Government
What were some new colonies that the English and rench founded?
HTey foudned Port Royal, Quebec, and James Town, MAssachusettles bay colonies
How was life in the early settlements?
it was difficult, most of the setlters did not expect to cultivate food crops but hoped to sustain thier communities by producing valuable commodities ushc as fur, ptch, tar, or lumber
The French and English colonies in Norht America differed in several ways from the Iberian territoires..how?
The Iberian exploratations had oryal backing, french and english were individual efforts
What were English Colonists subejct to?
HTey were subject to royal authority. Fr
What were the relationship betweent he French and English with the indeginous populations?
THey didn't setlte, and there were no big states....They took great pains to justify thier rights to some ladns
Where did conflicts arise?
The French and English clashed with the native people who resented the intrusions on ther hunting grounds
What did many settlers do to the lands?
They destoryed them, t
Another repetitive question...get it rght. Whatreally destoryed the indigenous population
Who was Cabeza de Vaca?
He was a Spanish nobeman wo jined an expedition of some three hundred explorers who went form ispaniola to investigate Florida in 1527.
What were the mEsito Societies?
They are very muliticultural places,
What was teh racial variety andwhy was there so much of i?
1. Because there was so many males there
2. There were omolotos, zambos, and then mized African/indigenous popel
What was the social hierarchy?
It was 1. Penisulares
2. Creoles (Those born in Maericas)
3. Mesitos (*MUlattos, Zambos and other mixes)
What was the social hierarchy in the Americas?
IT was the French and the ENglish were at the top, and only really mingled with thier onw groups.
What was really mined in the Americas?
Silver, it was concentrate in the norht of mexico, and in bolivia
Because Spanish people had found a lot of gold, what did it require?
It needed a lot of labor. HTey relied on volntary labor, but theyhad the practice of mita
What was the mita system?
It was the system by which laor was gotten. A native village was required to send 1/2 of its male population towork for four months in the mines at Potosi. Draf laberors recieved payment for their work, but wages were very low
What jobs did mita workers usually do?
Hauled baskets of sivlver or up steep mine shafts, while others wokred with toxic mercury, whcih miners used to separate the silver from its ore
What did men do to try and evade the draft?
They ran away
Did the spanish take some of the silver?
Yes, known as the quinto, it reprsented the princpal revenue that the corwn derived form its american possessions.
MOst Ameircan silver made its way across teh Atlantic to Spain and markets throughout Europe, and what happened them>
It was traed for islk, spices and othe rhtings in Asia
What was theprincipal occupation in Spanish AMerica/
The organization of minig industires created opporutnities of cultivators ..to organize workforces .
Produced foodstuffs for its own use as well as local markets..wheat, grapses and meat
What was the encomienda system?
IT allowed them to ge labor and tribue for people, while requireing them to wokr
Encomerendos did what
Abused the laberors, they reuqired a lot of tribute
What ddi the Spanish landowners resort to?
A system of debt peonage to recruit labor for htier haciendas, Under this sytem, the landowners advanced loans to native people so that hty ocould buy seeds
What were forms of rebellion
half hearted wokr, and retreat to tehe mountains
Who was Poep?
He was anative Shaman, and the rebels attacked missions, killed priests, and coloniests and rove Spanish settlers out of the region...
On some occasions, indigenous peopels turned to what? When there wereoppresive colonists?
To Spanish LAw..
What did the Portugese Empire depend on?
The extraction of Sugar
Portugese nobles and entrepeneurs established sugar plantations in regions without the administrative_-
WHat was the enghenho?
WIt was the sugar harest, an it depended on heavy labor from many people
In a colonial economy, where sugar figured as the most important export, the Portugese plant owners of sugar mills were a_ (Class)
Privilaged class, htey could count on royal support if they produced money
In Where did the portugese colonists get labor?
HTey got it from the local populatiosn, th einhabitants
What was a problem with the Inhabitents of Brazil
They were not sedentary cultivators. They rsited efforts to commandeer their labor, evaded Portugese forces by retreating inland
What did the Portugese do for labor?
Import slaves, they had a lot because they would loose some every year
What did European Mariners want when they first went to America?
They wanted fish...and lots of it
What was traded with native poeple
THey traded manufactured goods such as wool blankets, iron ports, firearms,a nd distilled spirits.
What did the fur trade do to the environment?
It hurt it, quite badly too, because the trappers would go to great extents to get the fur, which meant that it would hurt hte natural environment
what were some cash crops that were in the AMericas?
What state exported a lot of tobacco?
Because there were a lot of plantations in the Americas, they created the need for what?
Indentured labor. Colonists could not subjugate the indegenous peoples to do labor, but they could not force them to do any work
Where did plantations get tabo?
They got it from recruiting indentured servents from Europe. People who had little future in Europe came to America for some years
Like settlers in the Iberian colonies,w hat was very useful for the people in the plantations?
Slave Labor, definately Slave labor, because they needed more slaves as the indentured servents came and left
What types of missionaries came to the Americas?
Dominicans, Franciscans, Jesuits and others campaigned to Christianize the indegenous poeples
In Tlatelolco, what happened?
TH ebustling market district, there was a small school
Did native religons survive?
Yes, they did survive, in indegnous people, that s where htey survived.
Who is the patron saint in mexico
French and English missonaries di not attract nearly as many converts to Christianity in Norht America, because
French and English colnists did not rule over overy any huge colonies, so it was harder for them to conduct missions
What did people speculate about Australi
They thoguht that there was a land mass that existed..about t
What is the term for Australia/
Australis incognita. Thjey thought that it must exist
When htey visited hte islands of southeast Asia, in the quest for spices, they approached Australi from teh west, Portugese mariners made
the first siting
Although European mariners saw Australia, what did they NOT do?
They didn't really make landfall, or trade or do anything
What was Asutralia to the Britishers?
IT was a penal colony
In 1521, Ferdinand MEgelan and his crew became the first Euopeans to cross the pcific Oceans, htey encountered Guam. but aslo visited
Tuamoti, Cookm Solomon
The only pacific island that attracted a lot of interest was
Guam an d the Marina islands. Spanish authorities decided to consolidate thier position in Guam and bring hte Marina Islands under the control of the veceoy of new Spain in Mexico
James Cook saw what?
He saw a common pattern. in 1778, while sailing norht from Tahiti, in search of the northwest passage he came to Hawaii.