Chapter 25: Americas and Oceanias Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25: Americas and Oceanias Deck (81):

The first site of interaction between European and Ameirca beople was

The carribean, and the Taino were the prominent people in that region 



Cultivate manioc, lived in small villiages under the authority of chiefs,a nd showed interst in things like glass beads, metal tools that the spanish brought


Where was the base of Spanish operaitons in the carribean? 

Hispaniola, wh. Santo Domingo was foudned in 1498..and it was the trading capial. 


What was very clear about the Americas? 

THey offered no silk or spices of r the European market


did the settlers first attempt  to make money by? 

Mining gold, where usage f the Taino was popular


What were the social classes? 

Encomenderos (settlers), and Tainos, who they abused a lot


What dieases ravaged the area?

small pox and othe rthings


What are soem words fo the Tiano tha tusrvive? 

Canoe, Hammock,Hurricane, maize, BArbecue, Tobacco


Who came to the Carribean with the intention of establishin gplantations> 

Frnehc,English, would have good crops in sugar and tobacco



Conqurors..suhc as Hernan Cortes and Francisoc Pizzaro 


What was teh type of socity that spanish found> 

THey found societies quite differen tform those of the Caribbean islands. Both MExioc and Peru had been the sites of iddfferent agricultural societies, and,


When did the Conquest of Meixco begin? 

With a search for gold, 11519, Cortes led a search, to MExico. they seized teh empeor,,,, and Cuahtemoc was the last leader


What gave an advntage to the Spanish? 

Their Steel swords, muskets, cannons, and horses offered Crotes and his soldiers some advantage over he forces they met and help to account for the Pnish conquest


What was the diesease that ravaged the place?



How was Francisco Pizzaro able to take advantage of the Inca Empire? 

He came during a time of a dispute, between Huascar, and Atahualpa. PIzzaro exploited both of them, between different those factions and were able o get lots of gold 



Pizzaro spared the leader Altahualpa and until he had 


The conquests of MExoc came by 

individual efforts, hte people who conquereod could allocate lands


What were the two new colonies? 

New Spain-Mexico, and New Castile-Peru 


How was the power base designed? 

There were viceroys, the kings reps in the Ameiras. THe Audeinces herd appeals agaisnt the vicerosy decisions and policies and had the right to address the conerns


What were some new cities? 

St. Augustine in Florida, Lima, Panama


What did the Treaty of Tordesillas allow? 

Divided the world along an imaginary norht-south 370 leagues west, anad said some is Spain and th eothers is portugals


Who breifly stopped in Brazil? 

Pedro Alvares de Cabral


What were the cities iof the Iberian Empirs like? THey became centers of European style society in the ameircas: the Spires of chuches and cathedrals defined thier skulies and Spaish and Protugese were the languages of the Government 


What were some new colonies that the English and rench founded? 

HTey foudned Port Royal, Quebec, and James Town, MAssachusettles bay colonies


How was life in the early settlements? 

it was difficult, most of the setlters did not expect to cultivate food crops but hoped to sustain thier communities by producing valuable commodities ushc as fur, ptch, tar, or lumber 


The French and English colonies in Norht America differed in several ways from the Iberian 

The Iberian exploratations had oryal backing, french and english were individual efforts 


What were English Colonists subejct to? 

HTey were subject to royal authority. Fr


What were the relationship betweent he French and English with the indeginous populations? 

THey didn't setlte, and there were no big states....They took great pains to justify thier rights to some ladns


Where did conflicts arise? 

The French and English clashed with the native people who resented the intrusions on ther hunting grounds


What did many settlers  do to the lands? 

They destoryed them, t


Another repetitive question...get it rght. Whatreally destoryed the indigenous population

Small pox


Who was Cabeza de Vaca? 

He was a Spanish nobeman wo jined an expedition of some three hundred explorers who went form ispaniola to investigate Florida in 1527. 


What were the mEsito Societies? 

They are very muliticultural places,


What was teh racial variety andwhy was there so much of i? 

1. Because there was so many males there 

2. There were omolotos, zambos, and then mized African/indigenous popel


What was the social hierarchy? 

It was  1. Penisulares

2. Creoles (Those born in Maericas)

3. Mesitos (*MUlattos, Zambos and other mixes) 


What was the social hierarchy in the Americas? 

IT was the French and the ENglish were at the top, and only really mingled with thier onw groups. 


What was really mined in the Americas?

Silver, it was concentrate in the norht of mexico, and in bolivia


Because Spanish people had found a lot of gold, what did it require? 

It needed a lot of labor. HTey relied on volntary labor, but theyhad the practice of mita


What was the mita system?

It was the system by which laor was gotten. A native village was required to send 1/2 of its male population towork for four months in the mines at Potosi. Draf laberors recieved payment for their work, but wages were very low 


What jobs did mita workers usually do? 

Hauled baskets of sivlver or up steep mine shafts, while others wokred with toxic mercury, whcih miners used to separate the silver from its ore 


What did men do to try and evade the draft? 

They ran away 


Did the spanish take some of the silver? 

Yes, known as the quinto, it reprsented the princpal revenue that the corwn derived form its american possessions. 


MOst Ameircan silver made its way across teh Atlantic to Spain and markets throughout Europe, and what happened them> 

It was traed for islk, spices and othe rhtings in Asia


What was theprincipal occupation in Spanish AMerica/ 

The organization of minig industires created opporutnities of cultivators organize workforces . 



Produced foodstuffs for its own use as well as local markets..wheat, grapses and meat


What was the encomienda system? 

IT allowed them to ge labor and tribue for people, while requireing them to wokr 


Encomerendos did what

Abused the laberors, they reuqired a lot of tribute 


What ddi the Spanish landowners resort to? 

A system of debt peonage to recruit labor for htier haciendas, Under this sytem, the landowners advanced loans to native people so that hty ocould buy seeds 


What were forms of rebellion 

half hearted wokr, and retreat to tehe mountains 


Who was Poep? 

He was anative Shaman, and the rebels attacked missions, killed priests, and coloniests and rove Spanish settlers out of the region...


On some occasions, indigenous peopels turned to what? When there wereoppresive colonists? 

To Spanish LAw..


What did the Portugese Empire depend on?

The extraction of Sugar


Portugese nobles and entrepeneurs established sugar plantations in regions without the administrative_-



WHat was the enghenho? 

WIt was the sugar harest, an it depended on heavy labor from many people


In a colonial economy, where sugar figured as the most important export, the Portugese plant owners of sugar mills were a_ (Class) 

Privilaged class, htey could count on royal support if they produced money 


In Where did the portugese colonists get labor? 

HTey got it from the local populatiosn, th einhabitants


What was a problem with the Inhabitents of Brazil

They were not sedentary cultivators. They rsited efforts to commandeer their labor, evaded Portugese forces by retreating inland


What did the Portugese do for labor? 

Import slaves, they had a lot because they would loose some every year


What did European Mariners want when they first went to America? 

They wanted fish...and lots of it 


What was traded with native poeple 

THey traded manufactured goods such as wool blankets, iron ports, firearms,a nd distilled spirits. 


What did the fur trade do to the environment? 

It hurt it, quite badly too, because the trappers would go to great extents to get the fur, which meant that it would hurt hte natural environment 


what were some cash crops that were in the AMericas? 

Tobacco, Nicotene, 


What state exported a lot of tobacco? 



Because there were a lot of plantations in the Americas, they created the need for what? 

Indentured labor. Colonists could not subjugate the indegenous peoples to do labor, but they could not force them to do any work


Where did plantations get tabo? 

They got it from recruiting indentured servents from Europe. People who had little future in Europe came to America for some years 


Like settlers in the Iberian colonies,w hat was very useful for the people in the plantations? 

Slave Labor, definately Slave labor, because they needed more slaves as the indentured servents came and left


What types of missionaries came to the Americas? 

Dominicans, Franciscans, Jesuits and others campaigned to Christianize the indegenous poeples


In Tlatelolco, what happened? 

TH ebustling market district, there was a small school 


Did native religons survive? 

Yes, they did survive, in indegnous people, that s where htey survived. 


Who is the patron saint in mexico



French and English missonaries di not attract nearly as many converts to Christianity in Norht America, because 

French and English colnists did not rule over overy any huge colonies, so it was harder for them to conduct missions 


What did people speculate about Australi

They thoguht that there was a land mass that existed..about t


What is the term for Australia/ 

Australis incognita. Thjey thought that it must exist


When htey visited hte islands of southeast Asia, in the quest for spices, they approached Australi from teh west, Portugese mariners made

the first siting


Although European mariners saw Australia, what did they NOT do? 

They didn't really make landfall, or trade or do anything 


What was Asutralia to the Britishers? 

IT was a penal colony 


In 1521, Ferdinand MEgelan and his crew became the first Euopeans to cross the pcific Oceans, htey encountered Guam. but aslo visited 

Tuamoti, Cookm Solomon 


The only pacific island that attracted a lot of interest was 

Guam an d the Marina islands. Spanish authorities decided to consolidate thier position in Guam and bring hte Marina Islands under the control of the veceoy of new Spain in Mexico 


James Cook saw what? 

He saw a common pattern. in 1778, while sailing norht from Tahiti, in search of the northwest passage he came to Hawaii.