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For almost three thousand yeas, what had Egyptan emlmers presrved? 

The bodies of deceased individuals through a process o f mummification 


What does the Greek Historian Herodotus say about the craft? 

The embalmer first used a metal hook to draw the brain of the decesased out through a nostiril then removedht einternal organs though an incisions made alongside the abdomen. Washed them in palm wine and sealed them with a private thng 


What did Egyptian gunery customs refelc? 

A rposporous agricultural society, Food offerings consisted ostly of local agricultura products and scene painted on tomb walls


Egyptian society emerged along side what? 

Nubia and other societies in sub saharan Africa


African agriculture emerged in the context of guradual but 

momentous changes in climatic coinditions 


After 10,000 bCE, what was teh Sahara desert like? 

It was mostly a grassy steppe hland with numerous lakes, rivers, and streams. Rh


What is the sudan region? 

It was the extensive transition zone of savanna andgreassland that stretches between Sahara to the north and the tropical forest to the south.


What flourished in the Sudan environment? 

Grasses and Cattle


After about 9000 BCE, peoples of the eastern Sudan domesticated what? 

Cattle and became nomadic herders while they continued to collect wild. 


After 7500 BCE, they established permanent settlements and began to cultivate what? 

Sorghum, a grain that is widely grown 


Sudan began to cultivate what in the region between the Niger nad Congo rivers? 


Sudanic agricultrual became increasingly diverse of the following centuries, over the follwing centuries, what camein there? 

Sheep, goats arived from southwest Asia after 7000 BCE


Many Sudanic people ad formed what in terms of government

small monarchies ruled by kings who were viewed as divine or semidiving beings 


WhenSudanic people burried htier kings, what did they do the the servents? 

They exceuted them so that they could continue to meet the masters needs


What force did the Sudanic people recognize?

 They saw a single divine fource that was the source of good, evil. They associated with rain 


AFter 5000 BCE,w aht hapened to the norhten half of Africa

It was very hot. People moved 


Where did the people move?

To the Vicotira/Nile River


Where was the most important tramsformation of agriculture evident? 

in Egypt


In ancient times, what did the term Egypt refer to? 

Ut refered not to the territory embraced by the modern state, but rather to the ribbon of land bordering the lower third of the Nile between the Mediterranean and the rivers first cataract


Egypt enjoyed a much larger flood plain than most of the land to the south known as what? 



As the Sahara became really arid, what did people flock to do? 

They wanted to go to the Nile to establise societies that depended on intensive agriculture. BEcause of their broad floodplains, Egyptians were able to t take better advantagge of th eNIle's annual floods than the Nubian sot the south


What did the Egyp and Nubia come under the infeluce of the Mediterranean basin. How? 

At around 10,000 BCE migrants form teh red sea hills in Norhtern Ethiopi traveled down the Nile vallley and intoruced a language anestral to Coptic


What is a language that migrants from teh Red Sea introduced to the Egyptians? 

Coptic, which is the langauge of ancien tEgypt to the lower reaches of the Nile Valley 


After 5000 BCE, what happeend to African climate? 

It grew hotter and drier, Sudanic cultivors and herders moved down the Nile, introcucing Egypt and Nubia to African coprs such as gourds and watemelons 


What did both Nubians and Egyptians rely on? 

Heavy agricultre. They went into the flood plains in the late summer after the recessions of the NIle's annual flood and sowed their seeds 


What did the Nubians had to do to get crops? 

They had to rely on prepared fields and irrigation bywaters diverted form the Nile. This led to population growth 


Because of population pressures, what did people in Egypt have to do?

They had to develop more intense and sophisticated methods of agricultre. Ciltivators moved bond the Nile's immediate floodplains and began to grw crops on higher ground that required plaowing and preperation 


What did both Egyptians and Nubians do?

They had to organize early governments. The earliest were small kingdoms much like those instituted in the early Sudan  after 500 CE. 


By 3500 BCE, political and economic competition fueld what? 

numerous skirmishes and small scale wars between teh Nile kingodms.S ome kingdoms ovecame thier neighbors and gadually expanded until they controlled sizable territories 


What was one expansive kingdom? 

Ta Seti, a strong Nubian realm that flourised about 3400 to 3200 BCe and extended its rule in the north of the NIle's rist cataract into Egypt. When Ta -Seti delciened, the local kingdoms of souther Egypt were in a strong position to increased the poewr


After 3100, Egypt followed a path quite different fromthose of the saller Nubian kingdoms, ll the territory between the Nile delta and the river's first cataract because what? 

A state called Menes


Who was Menes? 

He wa a monor officiia form souther Egypt snce the Nile flows norht who rose to power and extended his authorty north anad into the delta


According to tradition, what city did Menes found>? 

The city of Memphis near modern Cairo


menes and his sucessors built a state that was uled by what?

 the pharaoh, the egyptian king. The early pharoahs claimed ot be cgods living on the earth, in human form, the owners and absolute rulers of all the land.


What gods were the phaoahs associated with?

They were associated with orus, the sky god and often represented the pharaohs together with a falcon or hawk. 


The power of the pharaohswas greatest during the first mllenium of Egyptian history, known as 

The arachaic Period (3100-2600_/ An the Old 


When was teh old Kingdom? 

It was from 2600-220


What is the most enduring symbol of their authority? 

Royal pyramids. The larges tis in Khufu/


Why were Egyptians intersted in Nubia? 

Because of political and commercial reasons. They were wary of Nubian kingdoms, tha tthey might threaten Upper Egypt and they desied products such as gold, ivory,ebony and prcious stones that were avaliable 


What did pharoic forces destory 

Tjey destoryed the Nubian kingdom of Ta-Sti soon after the unification of Egypt, leading to Egyptian dominatin of Lower NUbia 


For more than 1/2 a millenium, from about 3000-2400 BCE,, what did Egyptian presence in the north force Nubian leaders to concentrate their efforts? 

At political organization father ito the south in Upper Nubia.


What was a powerful kingdom that had been developed 

Kush, Capital Kerma


In spite of constant tensions and frquent hostilities, numeous diploats and expolorers did what? 

Traveled from Egypt to Nubia in search of political alliances and commercial relationships 


Toward the Old Kingdom, high agricultural productivity made several regions of Egypt so prosperous and powrful that they were able to 

ignore the pharoahs and puruse local interests. As a result, the central state declied and dissapeared


When did Pharaoic authority return? 

It returned with the Middle Kingodm (2040-1640_ Ph


Ow ppowerful were the Middle Kingodm Pharoahs? 

They were not as poweful as their predecessors i nthe Old Kingodm 


Who were the Egyptians pressured by? 

foreign people from southwest Asia called Hyksos 


Who were the Hyksos? 

Foreing Rulers, LIttleinformation survives about the, but it is clear that they were horse ridig nomads. Indeed, theyprobably introduced horses to Egypt, and their horse drawn charriots


What weapons did the Hyksos use? 

Bronze weaposn adn bronze tipped arrows, but the Egyptians relied mostly on wooden weapons and arrows wiht stone heads 


What reaction did the Hyksos provoke in Upper Egypt? 

Disgruntled nobles organized revolt agains the foreiners. They adopted  horses and chariots fo military forces 


The Pharaos of the NEw kingodm presided over a prosperous and productive

Agricultural surplusessupported a populaiton of perhaps four million people as well as an army of an elaborate bureaucracy thatdivided respnsibility among different offices 


What did th Paraohs of the new kingdom work to? 

Extende Egyptian authority well beyond the Nie valley adn the Delta


After expellng the Hyskos, they sought to prevent new invasions by seizing control of regions that might pose threats


Tthmosis III (1479-1425)

New Kingdom pharaohs. He led campaigns and wentto Palestine and Sytria. Tuthmosis dominated the coastal regions of the eastern Mediterranean as well as north Africa 


Rulers of the New Kingdom also turned their attention to the 

South and resotered Egyptian dominence in Nubia


What id drulers of the New Kingdom do? 

They went south and restored Egyptian dominence in Nubia and destroye dKerma


After the New Kingodm, how did Egypt fall? 

It entered alo period of political and military decline. 


By 1100, when Egyptian forces were in full retreat form Nubia, what did they do? 

NUbian leadres organized a new Kingdom of Kush at capital Napata located just below th NIle's fourth cataract. By the eith century, it was powerful enough 


The Egyptian economy was very productive because of what? 

Because of its prosperity and geographic location. Egypt was a center of trade, linking lands in southwest Asia, the Eastern Mediterranea and sub Saharan Africa


What appeared in Egypt and in Nubia

Writing Systems


Cities wee not as proinent in early socieites of the Nile river as they were in Ancient Mesopotamia


In the Nile Velly, populaiton clustered mostly in the numerous where

agricultural villages that traded with thier neighbors up and down the river. NEverthe less, serveral major ciites emerged and guided affairs in both Egypt and Nubia


the conquorer Menes had founded Memphis as early as 

3100 BCE. BEcause of its location at the head of the Nile delta, it was a good capial


What was tehebes 

it was a political center. It became the administrative center ofUpper Egypt and several pharaohs even called it Heliopolis


When did Heliopolis reach its influence? 

Durign the NEw Kingdom 


what was anoter city



What do writing records adn archaeological excavations make clear about NUbian cites? 

That they were really powerful


What were the most prominent Nubian cities of ancient times/ 

Kerma., Napata,and Meroie


Whre did Kerma dominate? 

Itboth teh river and overland routes betwen Egypt to the norht Sudanic regions to the south 


Where di d Kerma dominate? 

Both the River and overland routes between 


The fortunes of Kerma waxed Egypt to the North and  waned as Egypt contexted for power


During the New Kingdom, what city was thenew political center of Nubia

Napata. It was located just below the Nile's fouth cataract 


In Egypt and Nubia, because the ancient ciites were centrs of considerable accumulated wealth, which encouraged the development of social distinctions, what were social classes? 


2. Professional military forces.

3. Illuminates Egyptian society much betweer than Nibia.




Wo was Queen Hatsheput? 

She served as coruler with her son, and sh was often depicted as having a beard


Nile societies were much slower in developing what? 

Metal tools and weapons. Wheras the production of bronze flourised in MEsopotamia by 3090, it was larer


Only after what did the Egyptians use bronze?

Only after Expelling the hyksos, they equipped thier forces with bronze weapons and the impeial armies of Tuthmosis 


What was another metal profession?

The working of iron.


WThe earlies ttraves of African iron production discovered b archaelogists date form 

900 BCE.  In eastern Africa


Nile craftsmen also worked from theearly days of Agricultural society to devese efficient means of transport, what was one example

the Nile river greatly facilitated transportation. Egyptians traveled up and down the river before 3500 BCe, because the Nile flowes north, boats could ride the currents from upper to lower egypt


Nubia, navigation on the Nile was less convenient because 

Unnavigable cataracts made it necessary to transport goods overland befor econtinuing onthe rive. moreover, sailing ships heading upriver found it difficult to negotiate a long stretch of the nile 


What develped in both Egypt and Nubia? 

Taade networks. Such as in the cities Aswan and Elephantine


What does swen mean

Trde and Elephantine owned its name to the large quantities of elephant ivory that passed throuhg it while traellng down the ile


Whatwas also exchanged? 

There wee goos suhc as ebony, leaopord skins, ostrich feathes, gemstons, gold and slves


 After the establishmet of the New Kingdom, Egyptions also traded through the 

Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden with an east African land they called Punt, most likely modernday Somalia and Ethiopia


When did Writing appear in Egypt?

By Abotu 3200 BCe possibly as a result of MEsopotamina infelunce


What was Egyptian writing ike? 

First, they were mostly pictographs, then they became hieroglyphs, meaning holy inscriptions


Where does Hieroglyphics survive?

They survive on sheets of Pyrus, a paer like material fashipened fomr the inside of papyrus reeds


Although striking and dramatic, what were hieroglyphics?

They were also cumbersome. Egyptians went to the troubel of using hierogyphs for forma writing, and monument inscriptions, but for everyday affairs, they 


What script did they rely on for everyday affairs? 

Hiertic script, a simplified curvisive form of hierogplyphs


What did Greek Alphabet develop into? for Egyptians?

It became comotic (popular) and Coptic (Egyptian) scripts


What was education like in the Egyptian society? 

It brought handsome rewards. The privilatged life of a scribe comes accross clearly ina short work known as the Satire of the Trades


What languages did Nubians speak?

They spoke their own langauges, athough many individuals wre fully conversant in Egyptian as well. In NUbia, duiring tims when Egytian politcal and military infelunce was strong in southern lands


Nubian was Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, indeed over the centuries Egypt wielded great cultural influence in NUbia..especially during times when Egyptian political and military infeluence was strong in southern lands


Nubian inscriptions continue to appear in Egyptian hieroglyphic writing as late as the 

First centry CE>


What was teh Nubian writing? 

The Meroitic langauge, they borrowed Egyptian hieroglyphs but used them to represent sounds


Like their counterparts, Egyptians and NUbian sbleive that deities play prominet roles in the world, and that proper cultivation of the gods was an important communitiy responsibulity 


Who were the principal gods? 

Amon and Re. Amon is associated with the sun, creatoion, fertility, and reproductive sources, and Re is the sun god


Amon0Re faced a monothistic challengefrom who? 

Aten,another deity associated with the sun. Atens hampion was Aemhotep IVE who changed his name to Akhenaten o honor the deity.



Built by Akhenaten where broad steets, courtyards and open tempels allowed sun 


What did Egyptians believe about death? 

That not all life ends there, That is why they had a huge mummification-to prepare for immortality 


What was the cult of Osiris? 

It attracted interst. Sthi, his brother murdered him and scattered him throught the land. Isis retrieved the parts and gave her husband a good burial/ Impressed by her deotion, the ods restored Osiris to life, ngod of underowrld


What was Osiris associated> with ? 

Immortality and honoroed him through reliigious cult that demanded observance of high moral standards. He had the power to determine who would get the blessing of immortality and who did not


How was judgement determined? 

Whoever was ut on the cale and had their hearts weighed againest justice would go if it was ligheter


What was the most prominent of Nubian deities? 

Lion ogod Apedemak, often depicting with a bow and arrows who served as war god for the kingdom of Kush. Another deity Sbiumeker was the creator.


Alongside native traditions, Egyptian religious cults were popular in North America. What were some example? 

Mon, Osiris. Osiris was assosiated with teh god Sebiumker


Among the most influential poeple of sub saharan Africa in ancient times, who were the msot? 

The Bantu langauge. The orig


The original BAntu langague was one of many related tounges in teh larger Niger OCngo family of langauges widely spoken in west africa. The earlies bantu speakers inhabited a reigon embracing the eastern part of modern nigeria


What does teh term Bantu refer to? 

Persons, or people. The earlies Bantu spearkers setteld mostly along the banks of rivers which they navigated in canoes and in open areas of the regions forests 


What did the early Batu cultivators cultivate? 

yams, opil pams adn they had goats and raised guinea fowl. They ad clan based villages


Unlike most of their neighbors, what di Bantu show? 

Readiness to migrate to new territories. By 3000 BCEEm they were slowly sreading south into the west Africn forst and afte 2000 BCe they expanded rapidly to the south toward the congo river and east toward the great lakes 


Tow features of Bantu were helping them 

The conoes, in traveling river network, Agricultural surpluses 


About 1000 BCe, the pace of Bantu migrations quickended as antu people egan to produce iron tools and weaposn, wahat didi it been able to to do? 

Cultivatos to clear aland and expland the zone of agriculture mroe effectively than before 


Several smaller migratiosn also took place along the Bantu

The spread of the Kushite hearders, Sudanese Cultivatos


What soread? 

Teh yams and grains, whiel herders introduced sheep and cattle to the region.A bout the same time, Bantu and other people speaking Niger Congo languages family 


As cultivation and herding spread throught sub Saharan Africa, what did Agricultural peple do? 

They built distinctive societies and cultrual traditiosn. Most antu and other peoples organized gorups known as age sects they would do things that fitted their age


What did Sudanic peopes realized? 

Impersonal divine force that they regarded as the source of both good and evil. They believed that htis divine forc could take for o findividual spirits and they thoguth the force was ultimately responsible for reawared and punishments