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Flashcards in Chapter14 Deck (106):

In 632, what happened? 

The prophet Muhammed visited his native city fo Mecca from his oem in exile at Medim a



Teh holy pigrimage draws many people to Saudi Arabia 


What did Muslim rulers invest a lot in? 

The creation of Roads and things that people coudtravel in 


What Jamila bint Nasir al Dawla do 

provided food and fresh green vegetables for her fellow pilgrims and furnished five hunded camels 


What des the world Islam mean?




One who has submitted 


Where did Islam arise 

In the Arabian peninsula and the new religon relected 


What was the area like in where Islam developed> 

It was not very well watered. There were few cities, and bedouin kept herds ofsheep, goats, and camels migraing through the deserts to find grass and water for thier animals. 


What were some seas in Arabiia? 

The Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Mediterranean Basin 


Muhammed's background? 

He was bron in 570 into a reutable family of Merchants in mecca. He lsot his parents early , and Married Khadija in 595


Muhammed middle ife? 

BY age 3o he is established as a merchant. Makes comfortable life in Arabian society where people of different reigous and cultural traditions deal with eachoher 



Muhammed undergoes spiritual experience. He left him with confictions that htere is onely one Allah and that he ruled the universe.


What were Allah's qualities 

That he ruled ht euniverse and tha tidolatory and the recognition  of other gds would be punished. Muhammed experienced visions which he udnerstood as messages from the Archangel Gabriel instructing him to explain the faith to others.


How did Muhammed originally present his revations? 

In oral recitaitons of the revaltions he had recieved during his visions. As the islamic community grew, his follewrs prepared written texts of his teachings



650s, it was a compilation of Muhammeds revatations. Knon as revalations. 



Include sayings attributed to Mumammed. Sevveral collections of Hadith appeared between the ninth and eleventh centuries C.E.


What was the conflict at Mecca? 

The insitence that Allah was the ony divine power struck others as offensive. It disparagedother deities. Also, the attack on idolatry was bad for the economy. 


What was the Ka'ba? 

It was housedin a cube shaped building and drew worshipers from all over the place 


Where did Muhammed's followers fled? 

To Abyssinia. They made a city called Mediana (cty of the prohphet) I


What is the hijra? 

The official start to the islamic calender 



Community of thefaithful and roviddd it with a legal and social code. He led this community in ritals, and social welfare. 


What did Muhammedrefer to himself as? 

The last prophet. He taught that the message entrusted to him offered a complete version of the Allah and the others were only okay 


In 629

The Oeople went to Ka'ba and they conqured MEcca. They forced the elites to adopt Muhammeds faith and they imposed a government dedicated to Allah . 


What was the Ka'ba 

Not the home of a deity but it was asymbol of Mecca's greatness. They only allowed the faithful to approach the shrine. 


How was Islam expanding? 

They launched campaigns against others


What were the five pillars fo Islam

1. Allah is only god, pray to allah while facing mecca, observe fast during Ramada, contribute to the relief for the weak adn poor, must go to Mecca 


What does the term Juhad mean 

Struggle, It imposes a spiritual and moral obligaitons on Muslims by requiring them to comabt vice nd evil. It calls on Muslims to struggle against ignorance na dunbelief 


What is the sharia 

The islamic law. Emerges during the centuries after Muhammed and offers detailed guidance on proper behavior. Inspiration from the Quran adn Muhammes life 


Dar al islam means 

house of Islam 


Because Muhammed was the last prophet, who took over after he died? 

Abu Bakr a man who was one of the pprophets close friends 


Bakr was the 

Caliph or deputy.


Caliphs did what? 

Served as the the head of state for the Islamic ommunity aswell as chief jduge, religous leader. They were lieutenants 


Why were Muslim armies so effective? 

Because they attacked at the moments hwere the Snasanids and  the BYzantine Emprie were exhausted 



Muslim forces seized Byzantine Syria and PAlestine 640 Conquored Byzantine 651 Tppled the Sansanid Dynasty 



Whne did they get to Indian 

in 711 


What problems were encountered during the rapid expansion 

The governance and administration. The selection of caliphs. Leaers of the most powful Arab clans negotiated among themselves and appointed the first four caliphs 



originated a party supporting the appointment of Ali and his descendants. He was a cousin and son in law of MUhammed na d heas a candidate wen he died. He was 4th caliph 



accepted the legitimacy of the early caliphs and Shia partisans observed the holy days inhonors of their leaders 


Umayyad Dyansty 

66-750 solved the problem of successiontemporarily. Umayyads ranked among the most prominent of th e Meccan mercahnt clas and thier reputation and netwekr of aliances helped them bring stablit to the Islamic community 


WHere was the Umayyad Capital

At Dascus-A thriving commerical city in Syria whose central location enabled thm to maintain better comminication with the vast andstill expadnign Islamic empire 


What did the policies of the Umayyads reflect? 

Support of the Arab mulitary aristocracy. 


The bad representation caused what? 

Severe upset. There were Chritinans, Jews adn other faiths in the place


Whaat was Juzya? 

A head tax to those who did not convert to Islam. Even those who converted did not enjoy much wealt h or positions of authority 


Beginning in the 8th centry, what happened to the Umayyad dyansty 

caliphs becam ealienated from other Arabs, they deoted themselves to luxurious taliving rather than Zealous leadership fo the Umma and they scandalized Muslims with their casual attitudes to muslim Doctorine


Whao was the chief leader of the Rebellions tha tbrought eh Umayyad dysntay to an end? 

Abu Al Abbas, a descendnt of Muhammads uncle. Although he was a SUnni, he allied wiht Shais.


Abu Al Abbas party: 

Rejected Umayyad authority and seized control fo MPersia and Mesopotamia. n 750, his army shattered Umayyad forces in a huge batte. 


AFter he shattered Umayyed forces, what did he do? 

He slaughtereed them at a blanket 


What were teh differences between the two states? 

Abbasid was more cosomopolitan than the predecessor. The Abbasid rulers did not sow special favor, and other rose to prominant places 


What was the fighting status of Abbasid? 

It sparred intermittently with the Byzantine emrpire and they frequently clashed with nomadic poeple from central asia and in 751, they defeated Chinese army at Talas River 


Why was the Abbasid Emprie able to expand

Because everyone was doign a llittle bit for it 


Where did Central Authority comef rom 



In the Abbasid realm, there wre 

Ulama (religous knowledge and quadis judges that set moral standards inlocal communities and resolved dispites. Ulama were religous specialists. 


The High POint of Abbasid dynasty came when who was there? 

Harun Al Rashid. (786-809) by the alte eighth century, Abbasid authoriy had laost some of its forces in provicnces distant from baghdad. But, it remained strong enoguh to get t


What was Baghdad during his time? 

A center of banking, commerce, crafts and industrial prodcution, a metropolis with a ppopulation of several hudnred thousand people. 


Who did Harun Al Rashid Support? 

He supportedthose in liberal arts 


Why did Abbasid enter a period of decline

 Civil war between Haruns sons dmaged the authoirty. Governers took atvantage fo that amd built up powers. Mongols came, and it fell to teh turks 





What did soldiers and admins do fo r the world? 

Tehy introduced useful crops to other regions. Te most important of teh transplatns traveleld west. 


What were some crops that were introduced? 

Sugar Cane,r ice and new varieties of sorghum and weat, veggies, artichokes and eggplants. Oranges, lemons, limes, banans, coconuts, watermelons 


What did the introduction of new foodcrops lead to 

rucher and more varied dit 


Wat was the most mportant crop


What did Cultivators do? 

Paid attention to fertlization ,crop rotation and the like and they outlined thieir findings in hundreds of agricultural manuals . 


What were som cities that grew during this time? 

Dellhi, Samarkand, Bukhara, Merlermo, Tunis, Tangier, Coroda and Toledo. Had many classes 


What product was quite important 

Paper. ITwas introduced from Chian. At the talas river battle. 


What were the cities of the Sasanid empire that came under Muslim congrol 

Merv, Nishapur, Bukhara, and Samarkand were long estalished commerical centers and they made it possible fo rMslim mercahnts to trde over revived silk networks 


What were mercahtns able to take advantage of? 

The roads built in previosu eras. 



Overalnd trade was done mostly by 

Camel Caravan. This is because they can endure the rigor sof desert travel much bettern tan other animals. Also, you can fit a saddle on them!


What inventions became very important

Lateen sail and compass . They helped with Maritime Technology 


What did they get from teh Hellenistic Mediterarnea 

Astrolabe, an instrument that enabled htem to calculate Latitude. Arab and persian mariners ventured thorughout the Indian ocean calling at many diferent ports 



Was a mercahtns who became a really really weathy man 


What were banks 

They stimialted the commerical economy of the Islamc world. They had operated for a long ime, but the Banks of the Abbasid period conducted business on a much larger scale and provuded a more extenisve range of servicesthan did their predecessors. 


What was a check called 

A Sakk. 


What were some tricks in Islamic trade? 

They would not embark on solo venturs since an individual couldface financial ruin if an entire carogo of commodities fell rety to pirates or went tdown with a ship tha tsank in a storm . 


What did Abbasid Entrepeneurs often do?>

Pool thier resources in agroup investment so everyone would loose. 


What happened as a result of better organization ? 

Trade surged in the ealry isalmic world. Muslim mercahtnts dealt in silk and ceramics form Chian ,spices and aromatics, Mercahtns also ventured beyond setlted societies and crossed into Africa


Whoo was the Women that conqurered spain 

berber from norht africa 


The governors of Al-Andalus were who

Umayyads who refused to recognized the Abbasid dynasty adn beignning in the 10th century they styled their own caliph . They were also in teh whole life 


What were thriving business and political cities? 

Cordoba, Toledo and Seville 


What was the gender relations in the society? 

 A patriarchal soceity had emerged long befor Muhammed's time but Arabina wommen enjoyed rights. Suchas kadhja


Wjat was the Quran do? 

IT recognized the decent down the male line an he guareantee proper inheritance, they placed a lot of things on purity. Females were under the control of males. 


When ISalm expanded into Byzantine, whwhat did they do? 

They induced veiling of women. 


Since the 7th century CE what did the Quran do? 

It was the cornerstone o fIS,amic society. Arising from a rich tradition of poetry and song. 


What became populr?

Arabic Text 


What do theologians and jurists look to the Quran for? 

Stories about Muhammad's life and other sources of Islamic doctorine in their efforts t formuate moral guidlines 


One popular level, which people helped the spread of ilslam 

ulama, qadis and misisonaries helped to bridge diferences. They had positions at Islamic  courts and they were prominent in the public life of all cities in teh Islamic world 


Formal Education 

Promoted islamic values. many mosques, maitined schools tha tprovided an elementary education and religioous insturcitoj 



Appeared by the 12th century. Recruiting literate and learnedstudents with an advanced eduation. They were institutions of higher learning 



Patched woolen garmetns 


Who were the Sufis? 

Mystics that had an advanced education in Islamic theology and law. But, tehy also did not find formal religious teachings to be espeially meaningful. Thus, instead of concering themselves wiht fine points of doctorine, Sufis worked to deepen thier spiritual awareness. Most Sufis led ascetic lives. 


What was the Sufi's purpose

A mystical ecstatic union wiht Allah, relying n rousing sermons, passionate singing or spirited dancing.



argued that human reason was too frail to understand the nature of Allah and hence could not explain the mysteries of the wolrd. Only through devotion and guidence could human beings apprecialte it 


Why were Sufis effective as missionaries? 

Because they emphasized devotion to Allah above mastery of doctrine. They sometimes encouraged individals to rever Allah in their own awas even if they did not have a basis in the Quran . Tolerated preislamic values. They were okay with other deities, and practiced Kindness 


Wat was the symbol of Islamic cultural unity was the 

Ka'ba at Mecca which from an early dat attracted pilgrims form all parts of te Islamic world. The Abbasid caiphs encouraged this and they saw themselves as a supreme leaders of cultural unity of their realm. 


What happened because of the Hajj? 

New inns and stuff were built, which was helpful 


As Islamic community expande,Muslims of Arab ancestry interacted regularly wtih 

people of other cultural traditions especially those of Persia, India and greee 


How did Persian things influence the Islamic Empire 

Their adminsitratieve system and the organization of the umperial structure through which Umayyad and Abbasid Rulers governe d their vast empire. Meanwhile, Persian ideas of Kingship profoundly infuenced the Islamic politcal thought 


Omar Khayyan 



What were other Persian stories 

The Arabian Nights or the Thousand and one nights for Example rpesented POpular tales of Adventure 


What were Indian Influences on Islam? 

Math, science, and meidcine captured the attention of Arab and Perisans. 


What did Hindi numerals become? 

They became Arabic numerals since they learnedaround it through them. Advanced math, algebra and trig and geometry 


Whod id the Muslims specifically admire? 

Classical Greek philisopy, scientific, and meidcal writings 


Who were they specifically interested in? 

Plato and Aristotle whose works they translated and interpreted in cmmentatirs. During the Tenth and 11th centureis, they 


Ibn Ryshd 

Sevulla, hlped to shape Muslim philosphy and he became known as Averros in Europe. 


What was the problem with In Rushud? 

Reliance on atural reason went too far for many Muslims who placed more valu on the evalations of Quaran than on the fruits of the Human mind.