In 632, what happened?
The prophet Muhammed visited his native city fo Mecca from his oem in exile at Medim a
Teh holy pigrimage draws many people to Saudi Arabia
What did Muslim rulers invest a lot in?
The creation of Roads and things that people coudtravel in
What Jamila bint Nasir al Dawla do
provided food and fresh green vegetables for her fellow pilgrims and furnished five hunded camels
What des the world Islam mean?
One who has submitted
Where did Islam arise
In the Arabian peninsula and the new religon relected
What was the area like in where Islam developed>
It was not very well watered. There were few cities, and bedouin kept herds ofsheep, goats, and camels migraing through the deserts to find grass and water for thier animals.
What were some seas in Arabiia?
The Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Mediterranean Basin
He was bron in 570 into a reutable family of Merchants in mecca. He lsot his parents early , and Married Khadija in 595
Muhammed middle ife?
BY age 3o he is established as a merchant. Makes comfortable life in Arabian society where people of different reigous and cultural traditions deal with eachoher
Muhammed undergoes spiritual experience. He left him with confictions that htere is onely one Allah and that he ruled the universe.
What were Allah's qualities
That he ruled ht euniverse and tha tidolatory and the recognition of other gds would be punished. Muhammed experienced visions which he udnerstood as messages from the Archangel Gabriel instructing him to explain the faith to others.
How did Muhammed originally present his revations?
In oral recitaitons of the revaltions he had recieved during his visions. As the islamic community grew, his follewrs prepared written texts of his teachings
650s, it was a compilation of Muhammeds revatations. Knon as revalations.
Include sayings attributed to Mumammed. Sevveral collections of Hadith appeared between the ninth and eleventh centuries C.E.
What was the conflict at Mecca?
The insitence that Allah was the ony divine power struck others as offensive. It disparagedother deities. Also, the attack on idolatry was bad for the economy.
What was the Ka'ba?
It was housedin a cube shaped building and drew worshipers from all over the place
Where did Muhammed's followers fled?
To Abyssinia. They made a city called Mediana (cty of the prohphet) I
What is the hijra?
The official start to the islamic calender
Community of thefaithful and roviddd it with a legal and social code. He led this community in ritals, and social welfare.
What did Muhammedrefer to himself as?
The last prophet. He taught that the message entrusted to him offered a complete version of the Allah and the others were only okay
The Oeople went to Ka'ba and they conqured MEcca. They forced the elites to adopt Muhammeds faith and they imposed a government dedicated to Allah .
What was the Ka'ba
Not the home of a deity but it was asymbol of Mecca's greatness. They only allowed the faithful to approach the shrine.
How was Islam expanding?
They launched campaigns against others
What were the five pillars fo Islam
1. Allah is only god, pray to allah while facing mecca, observe fast during Ramada, contribute to the relief for the weak adn poor, must go to Mecca
What does the term Juhad mean
Struggle, It imposes a spiritual and moral obligaitons on Muslims by requiring them to comabt vice nd evil. It calls on Muslims to struggle against ignorance na dunbelief
What is the sharia
The islamic law. Emerges during the centuries after Muhammed and offers detailed guidance on proper behavior. Inspiration from the Quran adn Muhammes life
Dar al islam means
house of Islam
Because Muhammed was the last prophet, who took over after he died?
Abu Bakr a man who was one of the pprophets close friends
Bakr was the
Caliph or deputy.
Caliphs did what?
Served as the the head of state for the Islamic ommunity aswell as chief jduge, religous leader. They were lieutenants
Why were Muslim armies so effective?
Because they attacked at the moments hwere the Snasanids and the BYzantine Emprie were exhausted
Muslim forces seized Byzantine Syria and PAlestine 640 Conquored Byzantine 651 Tppled the Sansanid Dynasty
Whne did they get to Indian
What problems were encountered during the rapid expansion
The governance and administration. The selection of caliphs. Leaers of the most powful Arab clans negotiated among themselves and appointed the first four caliphs
originated a party supporting the appointment of Ali and his descendants. He was a cousin and son in law of MUhammed na d heas a candidate wen he died. He was 4th caliph
accepted the legitimacy of the early caliphs and Shia partisans observed the holy days inhonors of their leaders
66-750 solved the problem of successiontemporarily. Umayyads ranked among the most prominent of th e Meccan mercahnt clas and thier reputation and netwekr of aliances helped them bring stablit to the Islamic community
WHere was the Umayyad Capital
At Dascus-A thriving commerical city in Syria whose central location enabled thm to maintain better comminication with the vast andstill expadnign Islamic empire
What did the policies of the Umayyads reflect?
Support of the Arab mulitary aristocracy.
The bad representation caused what?
Severe upset. There were Chritinans, Jews adn other faiths in the place
Whaat was Juzya?
A head tax to those who did not convert to Islam. Even those who converted did not enjoy much wealt h or positions of authority
Beginning in the 8th centry, what happened to the Umayyad dyansty
caliphs becam ealienated from other Arabs, they deoted themselves to luxurious taliving rather than Zealous leadership fo the Umma and they scandalized Muslims with their casual attitudes to muslim Doctorine
Whao was the chief leader of the Rebellions tha tbrought eh Umayyad dysntay to an end?
Abu Al Abbas, a descendnt of Muhammads uncle. Although he was a SUnni, he allied wiht Shais.
Abu Al Abbas party:
Rejected Umayyad authority and seized control fo MPersia and Mesopotamia. n 750, his army shattered Umayyad forces in a huge batte.
AFter he shattered Umayyed forces, what did he do?
He slaughtereed them at a blanket
What were teh differences between the two states?
Abbasid was more cosomopolitan than the predecessor. The Abbasid rulers did not sow special favor, and other rose to prominant places
What was the fighting status of Abbasid?
It sparred intermittently with the Byzantine emrpire and they frequently clashed with nomadic poeple from central asia and in 751, they defeated Chinese army at Talas River
Why was the Abbasid Emprie able to expand
Because everyone was doign a llittle bit for it
Where did Central Authority comef rom
In the Abbasid realm, there wre
Ulama (religous knowledge and quadis judges that set moral standards inlocal communities and resolved dispites. Ulama were religous specialists.
The High POint of Abbasid dynasty came when who was there?
Harun Al Rashid. (786-809) by the alte eighth century, Abbasid authoriy had laost some of its forces in provicnces distant from baghdad. But, it remained strong enoguh to get t
What was Baghdad during his time?
A center of banking, commerce, crafts and industrial prodcution, a metropolis with a ppopulation of several hudnred thousand people.
Who did Harun Al Rashid Support?
He supportedthose in liberal arts
Why did Abbasid enter a period of decline
Civil war between Haruns sons dmaged the authoirty. Governers took atvantage fo that amd built up powers. Mongols came, and it fell to teh turks
What did soldiers and admins do fo r the world?
Tehy introduced useful crops to other regions. Te most important of teh transplatns traveleld west.
What were some crops that were introduced?
Sugar Cane,r ice and new varieties of sorghum and weat, veggies, artichokes and eggplants. Oranges, lemons, limes, banans, coconuts, watermelons
What did the introduction of new foodcrops lead to
rucher and more varied dit
Wat was the most mportant crop
What did Cultivators do?
Paid attention to fertlization ,crop rotation and the like and they outlined thieir findings in hundreds of agricultural manuals .
What were som cities that grew during this time?
Dellhi, Samarkand, Bukhara, Merlermo, Tunis, Tangier, Coroda and Toledo. Had many classes
What product was quite important
Paper. ITwas introduced from Chian. At the talas river battle.
What were the cities of the Sasanid empire that came under Muslim congrol
Merv, Nishapur, Bukhara, and Samarkand were long estalished commerical centers and they made it possible fo rMslim mercahnts to trde over revived silk networks
What were mercahtns able to take advantage of?
The roads built in previosu eras.
Overalnd trade was done mostly by
Camel Caravan. This is because they can endure the rigor sof desert travel much bettern tan other animals. Also, you can fit a saddle on them!
What inventions became very important
Lateen sail and compass . They helped with Maritime Technology
What did they get from teh Hellenistic Mediterarnea
Astrolabe, an instrument that enabled htem to calculate Latitude. Arab and persian mariners ventured thorughout the Indian ocean calling at many diferent ports
Was a mercahtns who became a really really weathy man
What were banks
They stimialted the commerical economy of the Islamc world. They had operated for a long ime, but the Banks of the Abbasid period conducted business on a much larger scale and provuded a more extenisve range of servicesthan did their predecessors.
What was a check called
What were some tricks in Islamic trade?
They would not embark on solo venturs since an individual couldface financial ruin if an entire carogo of commodities fell rety to pirates or went tdown with a ship tha tsank in a storm .
What did Abbasid Entrepeneurs often do?>
Pool thier resources in agroup investment so everyone would loose.
What happened as a result of better organization ?
Trade surged in the ealry isalmic world. Muslim mercahtnts dealt in silk and ceramics form Chian ,spices and aromatics, Mercahtns also ventured beyond setlted societies and crossed into Africa
Whoo was the Women that conqurered spain
berber from norht africa
The governors of Al-Andalus were who
Umayyads who refused to recognized the Abbasid dynasty adn beignning in the 10th century they styled their own caliph . They were also in teh whole life
What were thriving business and political cities?
Cordoba, Toledo and Seville
What was the gender relations in the society?
A patriarchal soceity had emerged long befor Muhammed's time but Arabina wommen enjoyed rights. Suchas kadhja
Wjat was the Quran do?
IT recognized the decent down the male line an he guareantee proper inheritance, they placed a lot of things on purity. Females were under the control of males.
When ISalm expanded into Byzantine, whwhat did they do?
They induced veiling of women.
Since the 7th century CE what did the Quran do?
It was the cornerstone o fIS,amic society. Arising from a rich tradition of poetry and song.
What became populr?
What do theologians and jurists look to the Quran for?
Stories about Muhammad's life and other sources of Islamic doctorine in their efforts t formuate moral guidlines
One popular level, which people helped the spread of ilslam
ulama, qadis and misisonaries helped to bridge diferences. They had positions at Islamic courts and they were prominent in the public life of all cities in teh Islamic world
Promoted islamic values. many mosques, maitined schools tha tprovided an elementary education and religioous insturcitoj
Appeared by the 12th century. Recruiting literate and learnedstudents with an advanced eduation. They were institutions of higher learning
Patched woolen garmetns
Who were the Sufis?
Mystics that had an advanced education in Islamic theology and law. But, tehy also did not find formal religious teachings to be espeially meaningful. Thus, instead of concering themselves wiht fine points of doctorine, Sufis worked to deepen thier spiritual awareness. Most Sufis led ascetic lives.
What was the Sufi's purpose
A mystical ecstatic union wiht Allah, relying n rousing sermons, passionate singing or spirited dancing.
argued that human reason was too frail to understand the nature of Allah and hence could not explain the mysteries of the wolrd. Only through devotion and guidence could human beings apprecialte it
Why were Sufis effective as missionaries?
Because they emphasized devotion to Allah above mastery of doctrine. They sometimes encouraged individals to rever Allah in their own awas even if they did not have a basis in the Quran . Tolerated preislamic values. They were okay with other deities, and practiced Kindness
Wat was the symbol of Islamic cultural unity was the
Ka'ba at Mecca which from an early dat attracted pilgrims form all parts of te Islamic world. The Abbasid caiphs encouraged this and they saw themselves as a supreme leaders of cultural unity of their realm.
What happened because of the Hajj?
New inns and stuff were built, which was helpful
As Islamic community expande,Muslims of Arab ancestry interacted regularly wtih
people of other cultural traditions especially those of Persia, India and greee
How did Persian things influence the Islamic Empire
Their adminsitratieve system and the organization of the umperial structure through which Umayyad and Abbasid Rulers governe d their vast empire. Meanwhile, Persian ideas of Kingship profoundly infuenced the Islamic politcal thought
What were other Persian stories
The Arabian Nights or the Thousand and one nights for Example rpesented POpular tales of Adventure
What were Indian Influences on Islam?
Math, science, and meidcine captured the attention of Arab and Perisans.
What did Hindi numerals become?
They became Arabic numerals since they learnedaround it through them. Advanced math, algebra and trig and geometry
Whod id the Muslims specifically admire?
Classical Greek philisopy, scientific, and meidcal writings
Who were they specifically interested in?
Plato and Aristotle whose works they translated and interpreted in cmmentatirs. During the Tenth and 11th centureis, they
Sevulla, hlped to shape Muslim philosphy and he became known as Averros in Europe.
What was the problem with In Rushud?
Reliance on atural reason went too far for many Muslims who placed more valu on the evalations of Quaran than on the fruits of the Human mind.