Hong Xiuquan, the third son of a foor family, grew up in a
farming village in southern China, about 50 kilometers from Guangzhou
Although Hong Xiuquan was a bit arrogant, what did his neighbors make him
They made him village teacher, so he could study and prepare civil service exams. He became a christina missionary
What did Hong believe about Christianity?>
That God had charged him wth the establishment of a new order, one that necessitated the destruction of the Quing Dynasty
Society of God Worshipers, a
a reliigious society, recently founded by disgruntled peasants and miners. Hong soon became as the groups guiding force nad in teh summer of 1850, he led about 10 thousand followers
By the late seventeenth century, could th e ottoman empire expand anymore?
No, they suffered humilitating defeats on the battlefield
Who gave the ottomans especially humilitating defeats
Austrian and Russian forces
Why did the Ottomans loose so often?
Because their forces lagged behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, and training.
What happened to the Janissaries>?
They repeatedly mastermined palace cous since the 15 th century, and they soon became a powerful political force in the ottoman empire between 18-19 centuries
For the ottomans, loss of military power translated into what?
declining effectiveness of the central government which was looosing power in the provinces to its own officials.
By the early nineteenth century, what happened in the ottoman empire?
Semi independent governors and local notables had formed private armies of mercenaries and slaves to support th sultan in Istablu in return for recognition of aunotmy
What territories did the ottoman empire keep/ loose
Kept: Iraq and Anatolia
Lost: CAucus to Russia, and Buts from the Austrian empire, Greece, Serbia, and Egypt
How was Egypt lost?
in 1798, the French general Napoleon invaded Egypt in hopes of using as a springboard to attack British India
Who was the ultimate vicotr in Egypt?
It was Muhammad Ali, who buit a powerful army modeled on the European forces, and he ruled Egypt form 1805-1848.
How did Muhammad become victorius?
He drafted peasants to serve as infantry and he hired French and italian officers to train his troops. he also launched a program of industrialization concentrating con cotton textiles and armaments
When did Muhammed establish himself sucessfully as the leader of Egypt?
in 1820. He had established himself as the effective ruler of Egypt which was the mot poewrful land in in the Muslim world
MUhammed invaded which two places and threatened to capture..what?
He invaded Syria and Anatolia, and threatened to capture Istanbul
Why didn't the Ottoman collapse?
Because the British intervened thinking that the collapse of such a state would result in dangerous Russian expansion
What happened Economically to the Ottoman empire?
There were many economic issues. The volume of trade passing through the Ottoman Empire devlined throughout the later seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as European merchants increaingly circumvented the ottomans
When European traders developed, they began to produce items that were reletively cheap, and usable, They began to flow into the ottoman empire, which placed
Pressure on Ottoman artisians and crafts workers who frequently led urban riots to protest against foreign imorts
Gradually, what economic state did the ottoman empire move to?
Fiscal insolvency and financial dependancy.
After the Middle of the ninettenth century, what did economic developmen tin the Ottoman Empire depend on?
heavily on foreign loans as European capital financed the constriction of railroads, utilities, minings
Nohing symbolized more than the what in the Ottoman Empire_--
the Capitulations, agreements, that xpempted European visitors from Ottoman law and provided European powers with extraterritorialitym right to exercise jurisdiction over thier own citizens
Why did Ottoman sultans sign capituations?
To avoid the burden of administering foreing merchants
In response to recurring and deepening crisis, what did Ottoman leaders launch?
A series of reforms that were designed to strengthen and preserve the state.
What did Sultan Selim III embark on?
A program to remodel the army on lines of the European style . It was equipped with modern weapons
What did Local rulers persuad Mahmud II to lanch?
His own reform, he wanted to make sure that no one got mad in the process
What other reforms did Mahmud make?
HIs government created a system of secondary education of boys to facilitate the transition from mosque schools which provided mostly primary education
TO make his authority more effective, what did the sultan establish?
European style ministries constructd new roads built telegraph lines, and inagurated a postal service
Continuing defeats on the battle fields and the rise of separatist movement sprompted the ruling class to
undertake restructing of the Ottoman state. The tempo of reform increased rapidly during the Tanzimat (reorganization).
Where did Tanzimat reformers draw inspiration from?
They drew it from the Englightenment
What did Tanzimat reformers attack?
Ottoman law with the aim of making it acceptable to European s so thhey could have the capitulations lifted
Using the _legal system as a guide, what did reformers do?
They promulgated a commercial code, a penal code, a maritime code, and a new civil code
Tanzimat reformers also issued decres that were designed to safguard the rights of subjects...jey among them were what?
measures that guarenteed public trials, rights of privacy and equality before the law for all Ottoman subjects.
A comprehensive educational reform took place and did what?
It provided for a complete system of primary and secondary schools leading to university level instruction under the supervision of the state ministry of education
Although reform and reorganization strengthened the Ottoman society, the Tanzimat provoked spirited people who did what?
Harsh critiism came from the religious conservatives. many devout Muslims viewed the extension of legal equality to Jews and Christians as an act contary to the basic principals of Islamic law
Athough they did not share a common political or religious program, their views ranged from secular revolution to uncompromising Islam.
What did the Young Ottomans want?
They wanted individual freedom, loca autonomy, and political decentralization. some wanted a government established on the lines of the British system
In 1876, A young group of radical dissidents from the Ottoman bureaucracy seized power in a coup and formed a cabinet that inclued reform, who was the sultan
Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II established
he accepted a constitution that limited his power and established a representattive government
Within a year, what did the Sultan do>
He suspended the constitution, dissolved parliament, and exiled many liberals and executed others.
What did Hamid continue to do?
He continued to develop the army and administration according to Tanzimat principles and he oversaw the formation of a police force, educattion
Abdl Hamid's despotic rule generated many what?
liberal opposition groups, though inteded to strengthen the state, reform and reorganization undermined the position of the sultan. As Ot
When army officials recieved an education, what did they do>
They leanrned modern science nad technology but also became acquainted with European poliitical, social, and cultural traditions. Many of them fell out of favor of Hamid II and were exiled
Union of Progress or Young Turk Party
Many members were not young or Turkish, it was founded in 1889 by exiled Ottoman subjects living in Paris
What did the Young Turks promote?
They promoted the ideas of reform for universal suffrage equality before the law, freedom of religion, free public education,secularization of the state, and emancipation of women
In 1908, the Young Turks inspired an army coup that forced Abdl Hamid to do what?
Restore parliament and the constitution.
While pursuing reform wihtin Ottoman society, the Young Turks sought to maintain what?
Turkish hegemony in the larger empire, they worked to make Turkish the official language, even though many subjects spoke arabic or a slavic language. Young Trk policies agrivated tensions between Turkish rulers and subject peoples outside Anatolian heartland
Syria and Iraq were especially active regions of
Arab resistance to OTtoman rule Inspite of their efforts to shore up the ailing empire reformers could not turn th tide of decline
The nineteenth century tsars ruled a what?
multiethnic,Multiethnic, multicultural empire that streched from Poland to the Pacific Ocean
Half of the population spoke in what?
the Russian language or observed the Russian Orthodox faith.
The Romanov ttsars ruled their diverse and sprawling through
autocratic regime in which all initiative came from the centra administration
Who made up the vast population of Russia
Peasants-most of them were serfs
A respected and feared military power, Russia maintained its traditions of what?
conquest and expansion.
During the nineteenth century, where did Russia expand
East into Manchuria, south into Caucus and central asia and southwest into the Mediterranean
After defeating Turkish froces in a war from 1828, what did Russia try to establish
a protectorate over the weakening Ottoman empire. This
Crimean War (1853-1856)
clearly revealed the weakness of the Russian empire, which could hold its own against Ottoman and Qing forces, but not against the industrial powers of western Europe
In spetember 1854, allied forces mounted acampaign against what
Sevastopol in the Crimean peninsula, headquarters of Russia's Black Sea Fleet. Unable to mobilize,equp and transport troops, and defeat European forces that oerpate under a mediocre command.
The key to sicial reform in Russia was emacipaiton of the serfs,
Opposition to serfdom ha dgrown steadily since the ighteenth century.
Although some Russians objected to serfdom on moral grounds, what did people believe
it became an obsticle
Tsar Alexander II
suggested the nobilty of Moscow. Accordintly in 1861 the tsar abolished hte institution of serfdom, though it remained in practice for decades
The gvernment sought to balance the interests of what
lords and serfs, but on balace, the terms of emancipation were unfavorable to most peasants. The government compensated landowners for the oss of their land and the serfs who had worked it
The key to social reform in Russia was
emancipation of hte serfs. Opposition to serfdom had grown steadily since the eighteenth century, not noly among radicals but also high officials
Although some Russians objeted to serfdom on moral grounds, what did many believe?
They believed that it had become an obstacle to economic development to a viable state
What did Tsar Alexander II suggest about sefdom
That it is better to abolish serfdom from above than to wait until the serfs begino liberate themselves from below
The government sought to balance the interests of lords and serfs, but this was
unfavorable to most peasants
The government compensated the
lords for their loss, and the serfs who had worked the land
What were the political rights that peasants had?
None really, and they had to pay a redemption tax for their land
To deal with the local issues of health, education and welfare, what did the government create in Russia
elected district assemblies or zemstvos in 1864. Aothugh all classes includingpeasants elected representatives, and zemstvos remained subordnate to the tsarist autocracy
Legal reform was more fruitful than what?
experimentation with representattive government. The revision of the judiciary system created a system of law courts based on western European models repete with independent judges
Tsar Alexander II emancipated the serfs with
the intention of creating a mobile labor force for industrialization
minister of finance. His first bdget submitted to teh government in 1893 outlined his aims as removing the unfavorable comditions which hamper the economic developmen tof the country
Witte implemented politices designed to
stimulate exonomic dvelopment. The centerpiece
What was the centerpiece of Witte's industrial policy
ambitious program of railway construction which linked the far parts of the country.
When Witte remodeled the state bank, what did he encourage people to do
the establishment of savings banks. W
Witte supported infant industries with
high protective tariffs while also securing large foreign oans from western Europe to finance industrialization
For a decade, the Witte system played what?
a crucial role in the industrialization of Russa, but peasantrebellions and strikes by industial workers indicated that large segments of the popuation were unwilling to tolerate the low standerd of living
recently freed serfs did not appreciate what
factory work which foced them to follow new routines and adapt to the rythms of industrial machine
Employers in Russia kept wages of overworked and poorly housed workers at the what?
The industrial sections of St. Peters burg and MOscow became notorius for the what?
miserable working and living conidtiosn of factory laborers.
In 1897, the government limited the maximum working day to
11.5 hours, but that did not do much to alleviate the rights of woekers
Were there trade unions allowed in Russia?
Was everyone dissatisfied with the results of intensified industrialization>
Besides foregin investors, a growing Russian business class benefited from government policy that protected domestic industires and its profits
During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, antigovernment protest and revolutionary activtity
Hopes aroused by governmetn reforms gave impetus to what?
reform movements nad social tensions arising form indusrialization fueld protest by groups whose aims became increasingly radical
Peasants seethed with discontent because
they had little or no land and increasingly mobile dissidents spread rebellious ideas between cities
What was the center of opposition>
It was the university students and a class of intellectuals collectively known as the intelligentsia.
What was the goal of the intelligentsia?
Sught substantial political reform and thourough social change
Some activists saw the main potential for revolutionary action in the where
Beween 1873-1876, what did hundreds of anarchists do?
They traveled to rural areas to enlighten and rouse the peasantry. The peasants did not understand thier impassioned speeches, but the police did arrest the idealists
Because they were frightened by the manifestaitons of radicalims, what did authorities do?
they censored publications and send secret police to infliltrate and break up dissident organizations.
in the Baltic provinces, Poland, and hte Ukrane, Georgia and central asia, dissidents opposed the tsarist authority on
ethic as well as political and social grounds
When the people who were against the Tsarits sought independence what happened?
IT was responded with heavy hand program of Russificantion to reprress the usage of any other language other htan Russian and to restrict educational opportunities to those who wer eloyall
Land of Freedom Party
Promoted assasination of prominent officials as a means to pressure the government into reform.
Who was assasinated?
Alexander II, who hademancipated the serfs and had launched a program of political and social reform.
was well intenetioned, but a weak ruler, He was able to control the oppression and police control. To deflect attention form domestic issues and neutralize revolutionary movements, the tsar's government embarked on expansionist ventures
Revolution of 1905
group fo workers marched on the tsar's Winter Palacee in St. Petersburg to petition Nicholas for a popular elected assemby and other things/
What happened after Bloody Sunday?
People discussed organizing themselves at the village level and seizing property.
In 1759, the Qianlong emperor restricted the European commercial rpesence in china, because
they didn't want the Europeans to establish a huge prescene there
The places where foregin merchants could deal with.
What did the British do?
They used Turkish and persian epertise and they grew Opium in India and shipped it to China./ For silver
Although trade in Opium was illegal, what happened with it>
it contiuned to go on, because Chinese authorities made little effort to enforce the law. Some often benefitted personally from this.
What did the opium trade do?
Drained large quantities of silver bullion from China but also created serious social problems in southern China, when government
destroyed 20,000 chests of opium
made plain the military power differential between Europe and CHina. In the initial stages of the conflict, British naval vessels easly demonstrated their supirority on the seas. Meanwhile, equippped only with swords, knives, spears and muskets the chinese
When did British forces break the military stalemate>?
When they decided to strick at Chin'as jugular vein-the grand canal which linke dthe two rivers
HOw did the British advance up the rivers?
With Nemesis, they encountered little resistence
Unequa treaties which curtailed China's soverignty...wereT
treaty of Najing (ceded Hong Kong Island in perpetuity to Britain, opened five Chinese ports, including Guangzhou and Shanghai) govered relations between Britain and China , legalized opium trade, permitted the establishment of Christian missions htroughout CHina
Call for the destruction of Qing dynasty and his program for the radical transofrmation of Chinese society
What were some of the things that the Taiping reformation offered?
It offered many radical features tha tappealed to discontented subjects including the abolition of private property, the creation of communal wealth to be shared according to needs, the prohibition of footbinding, nad other htings
Taipings decreed the equality of
men and women, it prevented sex.
After sweeping through southeastern China, Hong and his followers did what??
Took Najing and made it the capital of thier taiping kingdom. THey campaigned throuhgout China
The radical nature of the Taiping program ensured that the Chinese gentry would
side wiht the Qing government to support a regime dedicated to the preservaton of the established order.
The Qing government createda regional army stafed by
Chinease instead of Manchu soldiers and commanded by members of the scholar gentry class
Self Strengthening Movement which flourished when
in the 1860s and 1870s
What was the Self Strengthening movement empowered with?
Imperial grans of auhtority that permitted thme to raise troops, levy taxes and run the slogan Chinese learning at the base. IT hed Confucian values and wnated to reestablish a stable agrarian society.
The Self Strengthening movement did not?
Introduce enough industry, to bring real military and ecnomic strength to China
HUndred DAys reforms
Led by Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao who published a series of treatises reinterpreting Confucian thought in a way that justified radical changes in the imperial system. Kang and Liang did not seek to preserve an agrarian society
China was transformed into what?
A constitutional monarchy guarenteeing civil liberties etc.
The broad range of reforms produced a violent reaciton from who?
Members of the imperial household including Dowager Cixi
What did Cixi do?
She threw her support behind an antiforeign uprising known as the Boxer rebellion, a violent movement spearheaded by milita uniits
What did the militia units of the Boxer rebellions call themselves?
They called themselves the Society of Rightenous and Harmonious Fists. The foreign press referre to teh rebels as Boxers/ they killed a lot of pople, but were crussed by foreigners
By the early nineteenth century, Japanese society was in turmoil due to?
declining agricultural productivity, periodic crop failures and famines nad harsh taxation contributed to economic hardship and led to starvation
Although a few cultivators prospered during this period, what did many have to do
many had to sell their land and beocme tenant farmer . Economic conditions in towns and cities where many peasants migrated in search of a better life were not better than those in the country side
What did the Tokugawa bafku respond with
conservative reforms. between 1841 and 1843, the shogun's chief adviseor Misuno Takdakuni initiaed measures to stemgrowth and economic growth
Matthew C Perryt
Trained his guns on the bafku capital of Edo and demande dtha tthe shogum open up to the Brits, Netherlands, Russians and US>
When foreign powers came into Japan, what happened
The Tokugawa collapsed.
What did the Meiji Government look to
the industrialized ands of Europe and the United states to obtain knowledge and eexpertise
Begin to study English and was a member of the first Jpaanese misison t the United sttates, he traveled to other lands as well
Who was Ito Hirobumi
Anothe rprominent traveler
What was the first goal of the Meiji leader?
to centralize political power, they had to persuade the daimyoto yild thier lands to the throne in exchange for patents of nobiity. Then there were governors to take care, no more samurai class
What about the Japaense Tax System
It was changed into a fixed money tax, which provided good incomes for the state.
What was another thing that Ito Hirobumi helepd
He helped establish a consititutional monarchy with a legislature. It was known as the Dit and was composed of a house of nobles
What did the emerpor also have the right to dissolve
The parliament whever the diet was not in session.