Chapter 32 :D Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 32 :D Deck (134):

Hong Xiuquan, the third son of a foor family, grew up in a

farming village in southern China, about 50 kilometers from Guangzhou


Although Hong Xiuquan was a bit arrogant, what did his neighbors make him

They made him village teacher, so he could study and prepare civil service exams. He became a christina missionary


What did Hong believe about Christianity?> 

That God had charged him wth the establishment of a new order, one that necessitated the destruction of the Quing Dynasty 


Society of God Worshipers, a

a reliigious society, recently founded by disgruntled peasants and miners. Hong soon became as the groups guiding force nad in teh summer of 1850, he led about 10 thousand followers


By the late seventeenth century, could th e ottoman empire expand anymore? 

No, they suffered humilitating defeats on the battlefield


Who gave the ottomans especially humilitating defeats

Austrian and Russian forces


Why did the Ottomans loose so often? 

Because their forces lagged behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, and training.


What happened to the Janissaries>? 

They repeatedly mastermined palace cous since the 15 th century,  and they soon became a powerful political force in the ottoman empire between 18-19 centuries 


For the ottomans, loss of military power translated into what? 

declining effectiveness of the central government which was looosing power in the provinces to its own officials.


By the early nineteenth century, what happened in the ottoman empire? 

Semi independent governors and local notables had formed private armies of mercenaries and slaves to support th sultan in Istablu in return for recognition of aunotmy 


What territories did the ottoman empire keep/ loose 

Kept: Iraq and Anatolia 

Lost: CAucus to Russia, and Buts from the Austrian empire, Greece, Serbia, and Egypt


How was Egypt lost? 

in 1798, the French general Napoleon invaded Egypt in hopes of using as a springboard to attack British India


Who was the ultimate vicotr in Egypt? 

It was Muhammad Ali, who buit a powerful army modeled on the European forces, and he ruled Egypt form 1805-1848. 


How did Muhammad become victorius? 

He drafted peasants to serve as infantry and he hired French and italian officers to train his troops. he also  launched a program of industrialization concentrating con cotton textiles and armaments 


When did Muhammed establish himself sucessfully as the leader of Egypt? 

in 1820. He had established himself as the effective ruler of Egypt which was the mot poewrful land in in the Muslim world 


MUhammed invaded which two places and threatened to capture..what? 

He invaded Syria and Anatolia, and threatened to capture Istanbul


Why didn't the Ottoman collapse? 

Because the British intervened thinking that the collapse of such a state would result in dangerous Russian expansion 


What happened Economically to the Ottoman empire? 

There were many economic issues. The volume of trade passing through the Ottoman Empire devlined throughout the later seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as European merchants increaingly  circumvented the ottomans


When European traders developed, they began to produce items that were reletively cheap, and usable, They began to flow into the ottoman empire, which placed 

Pressure on Ottoman artisians and crafts workers who frequently led urban riots to protest against foreign imorts


Gradually, what economic state did the ottoman empire move to? 

Fiscal insolvency and financial dependancy. 


After the Middle of the ninettenth century, what did economic developmen tin the Ottoman Empire depend on? 

heavily on foreign loans as European capital financed the constriction of railroads, utilities, minings 


Nohing symbolized more than the what in the Ottoman Empire_--

the Capitulations, agreements, that xpempted European visitors from Ottoman law and provided European powers with extraterritorialitym right to exercise jurisdiction over thier own citizens 


Why did Ottoman sultans sign capituations? 

To avoid the burden of administering foreing merchants 


In response to recurring and deepening crisis, what did Ottoman leaders launch? 

A series of reforms that were designed to strengthen and preserve the state. 


What did Sultan Selim III embark on? 

A program to remodel the army on lines of the European style . It was equipped with modern weapons 


What did Local rulers persuad Mahmud II to lanch? 

His own reform, he wanted to make sure that no one got mad in the process 


What other reforms did Mahmud make?

HIs government created a system of secondary education of boys to facilitate the transition from mosque schools which provided mostly primary education


TO make his authority more effective, what did the sultan establish?

European style ministries constructd new roads built telegraph lines, and inagurated a postal service


Continuing defeats on the battle fields and the rise of separatist movement sprompted the ruling class to

undertake restructing of the Ottoman state. The tempo of reform increased rapidly during the Tanzimat (reorganization).


Where did Tanzimat reformers draw inspiration from?

They drew it from the Englightenment


What did Tanzimat reformers attack?

Ottoman law with the aim of making it acceptable to European s so thhey could have the capitulations lifted


Using the _legal system as a guide, what did reformers do?

They promulgated a commercial code, a penal code, a maritime code, and a new civil code


Tanzimat reformers also issued decres that were designed to safguard the rights of subjects...jey among them were what?

measures that guarenteed public trials, rights of privacy and equality before the law for all Ottoman subjects.


A comprehensive educational reform took place and did what?

It provided for a complete system of primary and secondary schools leading to university level instruction under the supervision of the state ministry of education


Although reform and reorganization strengthened the Ottoman society, the Tanzimat provoked spirited people who did what?

Harsh critiism came from the religious conservatives. many devout Muslims viewed the extension of legal equality to Jews and Christians as an act contary to the basic principals of Islamic law


Young Ottomans

Athough they did not share a common political or religious program, their views ranged from secular revolution to uncompromising Islam.


What did the Young Ottomans want?

They wanted individual freedom, loca autonomy, and political decentralization. some wanted a government established on the  lines of the British system


In 1876, A young group of radical dissidents from the Ottoman bureaucracy seized power in a coup and formed a cabinet that inclued reform, who was the sultan

Abdul Hamid II


Abdul Hamid II established

he accepted a constitution that limited his power and established a representattive government


Within a year, what did the Sultan do>

He suspended the constitution, dissolved parliament, and exiled many liberals and executed others.


What did Hamid continue to do?

He continued to develop the army and administration according to Tanzimat principles and he oversaw the formation of a police force, educattion


Abdl Hamid's despotic rule generated many what?

liberal opposition groups, though inteded to strengthen the state, reform and reorganization undermined the position of the sultan. As Ot


When army officials recieved an education, what did they do>

They leanrned modern science nad technology but also became acquainted with European poliitical, social, and cultural traditions. Many of them fell out of favor of Hamid II and were exiled


Union of Progress or Young Turk Party

Many members were not young or Turkish, it was founded in 1889 by exiled Ottoman subjects living in Paris


What did the Young Turks promote?

They promoted the ideas of reform for universal suffrage equality before the law, freedom of religion, free public education,secularization of the state, and emancipation of women


In 1908, the Young Turks inspired an army coup that forced Abdl Hamid to do what?

Restore parliament and the constitution.


While pursuing reform wihtin Ottoman society, the Young Turks sought to maintain what?

Turkish hegemony in the larger empire, they worked to make Turkish the official language, even though many subjects spoke arabic or a slavic language. Young Trk policies agrivated tensions between Turkish rulers and subject peoples outside Anatolian heartland


Syria and Iraq were especially active regions of

Arab resistance to OTtoman rule Inspite of their efforts to shore up the ailing empire reformers could not turn th tide of decline


The nineteenth century tsars ruled a what?

multiethnic,Multiethnic, multicultural empire that streched from Poland to the Pacific Ocean


Half of the population spoke in what?

the Russian language or observed the Russian Orthodox faith.


The Romanov ttsars ruled their diverse and sprawling through

autocratic regime in which all initiative came from the centra administration


Who made up the vast population of Russia

Peasants-most of them were serfs


A respected and feared military power, Russia maintained its traditions of what?

conquest and expansion.


During the nineteenth century, where did Russia expand

East into Manchuria, south into Caucus and central asia and southwest into the Mediterranean


After defeating Turkish froces in a war from 1828, what did Russia try to establish

a protectorate over the weakening Ottoman empire. This


Crimean War (1853-1856)

clearly revealed the weakness of the Russian empire, which could hold its own against Ottoman and Qing forces, but not against the industrial powers  of western Europe


In spetember 1854, allied forces mounted acampaign against what

Sevastopol in the Crimean peninsula, headquarters of Russia's Black Sea Fleet. Unable to mobilize,equp and transport troops, and defeat European forces that oerpate under a mediocre command.


The key to sicial reform in Russia was emacipaiton of the serfs,

Opposition to serfdom ha dgrown steadily since the ighteenth century.


Although some Russians objected to serfdom on moral grounds, what did people believe

it became an obsticle


Tsar Alexander II

suggested the nobilty of Moscow. Accordintly in 1861 the tsar abolished hte institution of serfdom, though it remained in practice for decades


The gvernment sought to balance the interests of what

lords and serfs, but on balace, the terms of emancipation were unfavorable to most peasants. The government compensated landowners for the oss of their land and the serfs who had worked it


The key to social reform in Russia was

emancipation of hte serfs. Opposition to serfdom had grown steadily since the eighteenth century, not noly among radicals but also high officials


Although some Russians objeted to serfdom on moral grounds, what did many believe?

They believed that it had become an obstacle to economic development to a viable state


What did Tsar Alexander II suggest about sefdom

That it is better to abolish serfdom from above than to wait until the serfs begino liberate themselves from below


The government sought to balance the interests of lords and serfs, but this was

unfavorable to most peasants


The government compensated the

lords for their loss, and the serfs who had worked the land


What were the political rights that peasants had?

None really, and they had to pay a redemption tax for their land


To deal with the local issues of health, education and welfare, what did the government create in Russia

elected district assemblies or zemstvos in 1864. Aothugh all classes includingpeasants elected representatives, and zemstvos remained subordnate to the tsarist autocracy


Legal reform was more fruitful than what?

experimentation with representattive government. The revision of the judiciary system created a system of law courts based on western European models repete with independent judges


Tsar Alexander II emancipated the serfs with

the intention of creating a mobile labor force for industrialization



minister of finance. His first bdget submitted to teh government in 1893 outlined his aims as removing the unfavorable comditions which hamper the economic developmen tof the country


Witte implemented politices designed to

stimulate exonomic dvelopment. The centerpiece


What was the centerpiece of Witte's industrial policy

ambitious program of railway construction which linked the far parts of the country.


When Witte remodeled the state bank, what did he encourage people to do

the establishment of savings banks. W


Witte supported infant industries with

high protective tariffs while also securing large foreign oans from western Europe to finance industrialization


For a decade, the Witte system played what?

a crucial role in the industrialization of Russa, but peasantrebellions and strikes by industial workers indicated that large segments of the popuation were unwilling to tolerate the low standerd of living


recently freed serfs did not appreciate what

factory work which foced them to follow new routines and adapt to the rythms of industrial machine


Employers in Russia kept wages of overworked and poorly housed workers at the what?

Barst minimum.


The industrial sections of St. Peters burg and MOscow became notorius for the what?

miserable working and living conidtiosn of factory laborers.


In 1897, the government limited the maximum working day to

11.5 hours, but that did not do much to alleviate the rights of woekers


Were there trade unions allowed in Russia?



Was everyone dissatisfied with the results of intensified industrialization>

Besides foregin investors, a growing Russian business class benefited from government policy that protected domestic industires and its profits


During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, antigovernment protest and revolutionary activtity



Hopes aroused by governmetn reforms gave impetus to what?

reform movements nad social tensions arising form indusrialization fueld protest by groups whose aims became increasingly radical


Peasants seethed with discontent because

they had little or no land and increasingly mobile dissidents spread rebellious ideas between cities


What was the center of opposition>

It was the university students and a class of intellectuals collectively known as the intelligentsia.


What was the goal of the intelligentsia?

Sught substantial political reform and thourough social change


Some activists saw the main potential for revolutionary action in the where



Beween 1873-1876, what did hundreds of anarchists do?

They traveled to rural areas to enlighten and rouse the peasantry. The peasants did not understand thier impassioned speeches, but the police did arrest the idealists


Because they were frightened by the manifestaitons of radicalims, what did authorities do?

they censored publications and send secret police to infliltrate and break up dissident organizations.


in the Baltic provinces, Poland, and hte Ukrane, Georgia and central asia, dissidents opposed the tsarist authority on

ethic as well as political and social grounds


When the people who were against the Tsarits sought independence what happened?

IT was responded with heavy hand program of Russificantion to reprress the usage of any other language other htan Russian and to restrict educational opportunities to those who wer eloyall


Land of Freedom Party

Promoted assasination of prominent officials as a means to pressure the government into reform.


Who was assasinated?

Alexander II, who hademancipated the serfs and had launched a program of political and social reform.


Nicholas II

was well intenetioned, but a weak ruler, He was able to control the oppression and police control. To deflect attention form domestic issues and neutralize revolutionary movements, the tsar's government embarked on expansionist ventures


Revolution of 1905

group fo workers marched on the tsar's Winter Palacee in St. Petersburg to petition Nicholas for a popular elected assemby  and other things/


What happened after Bloody Sunday?

People discussed organizing themselves at the village level and seizing property.


In 1759, the Qianlong emperor restricted the European commercial rpesence in china, because

they didn't want the Europeans to establish a huge prescene there



The places where foregin merchants could deal with.


What did the British do?

They used Turkish and persian epertise and they grew Opium in India and shipped it to China./ For silver


Although trade in Opium was illegal, what happened with it>

it contiuned to go on, because Chinese authorities made little effort to enforce the law. Some often benefitted personally from this. 


What did the opium trade do? 

Drained large quantities of silver bullion from China but also created serious social problems in southern China, when government 


Commissioner lin

destroyed 20,000 chests of opium


Opium War

made plain the military power differential between Europe and CHina. In the initial stages of the conflict, British naval vessels easly demonstrated their supirority on the seas. Meanwhile, equippped only with swords, knives, spears and muskets  the chinese


When did British forces break the military stalemate>? 

When they decided to strick at Chin'as jugular vein-the grand canal which linke dthe two rivers 


HOw did the British advance up the rivers?

With Nemesis, they encountered little resistence 


Unequa treaties which curtailed China's soverignty...wereT

treaty of Najing (ceded Hong Kong Island in perpetuity to Britain, opened five Chinese ports, including Guangzhou and Shanghai) govered relations between Britain and China , legalized opium trade, permitted the establishment of Christian missions htroughout CHina


Taiping Rebellion

Call for the destruction of Qing dynasty and his program for the radical transofrmation of Chinese society 


What were some of the things that the Taiping reformation offered? 

It offered many radical features tha tappealed to discontented subjects including the abolition of private property, the creation of communal wealth to be shared according to needs, the prohibition of footbinding, nad other htings 


Taipings decreed the equality of 

men and women, it prevented sex.


After sweeping through southeastern China, Hong and his followers did what?? 

Took Najing and made it the capital of thier taiping kingdom. THey campaigned throuhgout China


The radical nature of the Taiping program ensured that the Chinese gentry would

side wiht the Qing government to support a regime dedicated to the preservaton of the established order. 


The Qing government createda regional army stafed by 

Chinease instead of Manchu soldiers and commanded by members of the scholar gentry class 


Self Strengthening Movement which flourished when 

in the 1860s and 1870s


What was the Self Strengthening movement empowered with?

Imperial grans of auhtority that permitted thme to raise troops, levy taxes and run the slogan Chinese learning at the base. IT hed Confucian values and wnated to reestablish a stable agrarian society. 


The Self Strengthening movement did not?

Introduce enough industry, to bring real military and ecnomic strength to China


HUndred DAys reforms 

Led by Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao who published a series of treatises reinterpreting Confucian thought in a way that justified radical changes in the imperial system. Kang and Liang did not seek to preserve an agrarian society


China was transformed into what? 

A constitutional monarchy guarenteeing civil liberties etc.


The broad range of reforms produced a violent reaciton from who? 

Members of the imperial household including Dowager Cixi


What did Cixi do? 

She threw her support behind an antiforeign uprising known as the Boxer rebellion, a violent movement spearheaded by milita uniits


What did the militia units of the Boxer rebellions call themselves? 

They called themselves the Society of Rightenous and Harmonious Fists. The foreign press referre to teh rebels as Boxers/ they killed a lot of pople, but were crussed by foreigners 


By the early nineteenth century, Japanese society was in turmoil due to?

declining agricultural productivity, periodic crop failures and famines nad harsh taxation contributed to economic hardship and led to starvation 


Although a few cultivators prospered during this period, what did many have to do 

many had to sell their land and beocme tenant farmer . Economic conditions in towns and cities where many peasants migrated in search of a better life were not better than those in the country side


What did the Tokugawa bafku respond with

conservative reforms. between 1841 and 1843, the shogun's chief adviseor Misuno Takdakuni initiaed measures to stemgrowth and economic growth


Matthew C Perryt

Trained his guns on the bafku capital of Edo and demande dtha tthe shogum open up to the Brits, Netherlands, Russians and US>


When foreign powers came into Japan, what happened 

The Tokugawa collapsed. 


What did the Meiji Government look to 

the industrialized ands of Europe and the United states to obtain knowledge and eexpertise



Begin to study English and was a member of the first Jpaanese misison t the United sttates, he traveled to other lands as well 


Who was Ito Hirobumi 

Anothe rprominent traveler


What was the first goal of the Meiji leader? 

to centralize political power, they had to persuade the daimyoto yild thier lands to the throne in exchange for patents of nobiity. Then there were governors to take care, no more samurai class 


What about the Japaense Tax System

It was changed into a fixed money tax, which provided good incomes for the state. 


What was another thing that Ito Hirobumi helepd 

He helped establish a consititutional monarchy with a legislature. It was known as the Dit and was composed of a  house of nobles 


What did the emerpor also have the right to dissolve 

The parliament whever the diet was not in session.