A remarkable oral tradition preserves what?
The story of the lion prince Sundiata the 13th century founder of Mali Empire
Oral traditions include
stories, histories, epics and other accounts trasmitted by professional singers and storytelers known Africa
What were the professional sinfers and storytellers known as?
What is the story of Sudiata?
His father ruked a small west African kingdom in the northeastern part of Guinea. Sudiata had a difficult childhood because he had a congenitally defective leg that left him partially crippled...
What was the surprise that Sudiata gave?
He overcame his injury and then learned to use the bow and arrow and he was a really good warrior
When did Sudiata return to his homeland to claim the throne. There, what did he do?
He went back in 1235 and his cavalry slashed through the countryside and defeated his enemies almost at will.
What were some of Sudinata's beliefs
He was a muslim, but e respected all of the other religions
Where was Sudiata's capital city
At Niani and it was a thriving merchant city
By 1000 CE where did Bantu people settle?
In most parts of Africa. Kushite, Sudanese, Mande and other people had also establised communites in lands far from their orifinal homes
What was the principal early result of Bangu and other migrations>
It was to spread agriculture and herding to almost all parts of Africa
When they established communities, what did the Bantu (or who) did they displace
The hunting and gathering peoples
After about 500 BCE what did the Bantu people have
What was the diatry staples of the people of south Africa
Yams, sorghum, and millet
When many people adopted cattle rasing before the Bantu and Kushite herders what did it do?
Placed increased agricultural production,and pressure for continuing migrations to new territories
The introduction of bananas to Africa encouraged what
A fresh migratory surge
Where did bananas come from
Southeast Asia, bananas entered Africa by way of sea lanes across the Indian Ocean. Malay seafarers from teh islands that make up Indonesia sailed west beyond india and colonized Madagacar and established banas there.
What did the Malay seafarers bring
Asian yams, taro, chickens and southeast Asian cultr. malagasy
What was the importance of Bananas to the Bantu people
It helped to provide nutritious supplement to Bantu diets that enabled them to expand
What was the population of the Bantu before iron
By 800 CE, after th bana cultivation how much did it climbe
to 17 million. Also, it climbed to 22 miillion
The continuing Bangtu migrations and the expansion of Bantu population and the stabishment of communities contributed to the changing in relationships of Bantu and Foraging peopl
Early, the Bantu said that they were useful guids, but it was increasingly difficult for foragers to flourish
What is stateless societies
They refer to one form of social organization widely prevalent in Africa during Bantu migrations, The term refers to the government that did not have much bureaucratic apparatus.
Where did Bantu people usually settle?
They settled in vilages with populations averaging about one hundred people. Male heads made up the villiages ruling council and the most prominent was a chief. A group of tribes was a district
What type of societiy grew to be very large?
Kin based societies
After 1000 CE, kin based societies faced problems because of what
Population growth strained resources but few lands were avaliable for migrants to settle. Also, there were conflicts between villages and districts that became more frequent
Because of more conflicts, what did bantu people have to organize
They had to organize military forces..
What did many districts fall under
They fell under the rule of chiefs.
What was one of the most active areas of development
It was the basin of the congo River where there were many large kingdoms
Because of population pressures, what happened
Many small kingdoms were formed
By 1200. conflicts between the states had resulted in the organization of larger, regional principalities
Describe the Kingdom of the Kongo
Participated in trade networks that involved copper, raffia cloth and nximbu shells
Governemtn: Included kings and officials who oversaw military, judical and financial affairs. It was the most tightly centralized of the early Bantu Kingdom.
How was the government of the Kongo?
King and other central administrators could appoint or replace local officials at will
Explain some of the qualities of the Kingdom of the Kongo?
it was very tightly centralized, local officials could be replaced at will, there was a royal currency based on cowries
Has the Sahara desert ever served as a barrer?
No, small numbers of nomadic people have lived in the desert. Mercahnts occasionally organized expeditions to the Sahara
What quicked the communication around the Sahara
The arrival of the Camel
Where did the Camels come from
From arabia by ways of Egypt.
How fast could a camel travel?
Fast, they could travel faster than a caravan
Which group really integrated trade accross the Sahara
The Arabs founded centers such as
Gaoi which as a terminus of caravans and was a market for copper, iron ware and textiles
What was the principalstate of west africa at the tie of the Muslim's arrival?
Ghana. It was situated between Snegal and Niger rivers
How many kings ruled Ghana before Muhammed embarked on the hijra?
As many as 22
When did Ghana really develp
During the 4th or 5th century
Why was Ghana the most important commercial site in the West?
Because it was the center of Gold which came into high demande
Ghana did not produce gold, but how did the kings get some
they got nuggest from lands to the south, probably from the Nigher, Gambia and Senegal rivers. The kings taxed the production of Gold
What did Ghana also provide?
ivory and slaves for traders from North Africa.
Where was Ghana's capital?
It was at Koumbi - SAleh
What did Al-Bakri describe the Ghanan Capital As?
It was a flourishing site with many buildings and mosques. There were also QADIS or muslim scholors. There was a enormous Army
What was the effect of the Ghana people converting to Islam?
It improved relations with muslim states
Did the Ghana king try to impose Islam
No, Takrur did but Islam was not eaccepted exclusivly. Native traditions were still accepted. And there were idols even at the palace
As the Ghana kingdom expanded to the north, it becae
more vulnerable to attacks by nomadic people from teh Sahara
What did Ghana people fall to?
The powerful kingdom of Mali
Sundiata built the Mali empire during
The first half of the 13th century. He gained a reputaiton for courage in battle and had a large army dominated by cavalry
Where did the Mali Empire extend to?
Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, And Sierrra Leone
How did Mali benefit from Trans-Sahara trade?
Mali controlled and taxed all of the trade passing thrugh west Africa.
What was the Mali Capital
Many people went to Niani to trade Gold
How did Mansa Musa observe Muslim traditions
He made the hajj. He had a huge army people
What did Mansa Musa give to the peopel
How did Mansa Musa draw great inspiration from the Muslim people
He built mosques and brought Islam to Mali
Which empire overcame Mali
the Songay Empire
What linked the east coast of Africa
Merchant Mariners sailed around
Bantu people went where
To the interior regions of east Africa and put some agricultural production there
What does Swahili mean
Coasters. It refered to those who engaged in trade around the east African Coast
The people spoke Swahili, but what did they do>
Developed different dialects and mixed Bantu with Arabic.
Trade came to several locations on the map, but why
there was a lot of increase in trade. The people controlled and taxed trade, so it became quite easy to put their influence in there
Te cities went under an impressive trasnformation how?
They had buildings and many mosques. Also, corol made some buildings. Silk
relied mostly on fishing and engaged in a limited amount of trade. They had to rely on agriculture and soomn they made a lot of coper coins. Had a population 12 thousant
Residents imported a lot of things
silk, pearls, perfume, porcelain.
What was the effect of long distance trade for interior villiags?
They still had wealth
What does simbabwe mean
Dwelling of a cheif
The region of Zimbabwe had many what
wooden residences. but, soon the residence swere made out of Stone.
The early 13th century, the Great Wall was built and itas what
It was near Nyanda and it was a big complex which housed 18 thousand people
How did Kings control stuff at Zimbabwe?
They organized the flow of gold, ivory, slaves and local products from sources of supply to the wast
What was the influence of Islam?
It was popular, but they didnt give up their original faith. Islam was a good thing for trade and other things
Sub-Saharan Africa had what?
800 different languages
What were the social structures?
Ruling elites, military nobles, admistrative officials, religous authorities, wealthy merchants, common people, peasants,a nd slaves
In small states, what did the social structures include?
They included aristorcratic or ruling elite, religous authorities
The communities had equal ownership of all the lands and they could use it i ncomon. Had extended families. Male heads governed the villiage
Workers with special skill were usually
Women adn men participated in harvesting
More opportunities in this cupture than usually. They could enjoy high honor as sources of ife. They also could be merchants or even be powerful
How did the arrival of Islam change the roles of Women
It did not
What were Age Grades
The African pratice of grouping age grades to perform tasks appropriate for their level of development. This allowed the formation of tight circles of friensds and political allies
How were slaves in African Society
they were usualy POWs or debetors or criminals. They wer ethe hold of wealth
What was the Slave Trade
Many outside continents wanted slaves because they were usfull. Also, large scale states be gan to make war with the smaller states in an effort to get slaves
What does the tern Zang mean>
Black slaves essentially
What were the Zanj revolts
Basically, the slaves worked in very difficult conditions, bu Ali bin Muhammed organized a lot o revolts that captured Basra. It showed the importance of the slaves
Many African people had what beliefs
They had monotheistic beliefs from the early days
What did the people recognize
A single divine force sthat sustained the world indirectly through spirits
Africans recognize many lesser gods having to do with the
sunm wind, rain, trees and natural featurs.
The lesser gods ddi what
participated actively in the world.
Like other religions, Africans had
Diviners who could look at things supernaturally
What was a good source of Chrisitanity
Which kingdom had Christianity
Axum in Ethiopia because they wanted to improve relations with teh christian peoole
Axum Christianity soon became what?
An island in the middle of Islam. But the christians enjoyed favor
During the 13th centry, Ethiopias leaders did what?
Claimed descent to David and Solomon
Kebra Negast did what
Means Glory of Kings undertook to trace the lineage
Christans retined what
basic rules because they had little contact. But it still reflected the beliefs of Africans. They had the world as ahost of evil spirits. Had amulets.
Islam appealed to who
ruling elites and Mercahtns and it was a foundationof buisiness
Converts to Islam continued to do what?
Take protective measures agains thte abd things
What was the role of Islam?
It suppleented the religion.