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Flashcards in Chapter 19 Deck (102):
1

A remarkable oral tradition preserves what? 

The story of the lion prince Sundiata the 13th century founder of Mali Empire 

2

Oral traditions include 

stories, histories, epics and other accounts trasmitted by professional singers and storytelers known Africa

3

What were the professional sinfers and storytellers known as? 

Griots 

4

What is the story of Sudiata? 

His father ruked a small west African kingdom in the northeastern part of Guinea. Sudiata had a difficult childhood because he had a congenitally defective leg that left him partially crippled...

5

What was the surprise that Sudiata gave? 

He overcame his injury and then learned to use the bow and arrow and he was a really good warrior 

6

When did Sudiata return to his homeland to claim the throne. There, what did he do? 

He went back in 1235 and his cavalry slashed through the countryside and defeated his enemies almost at will. 

7

What were some of Sudinata's beliefs 

He was a muslim, but e respected all of the other religions 

8

Where was Sudiata's capital city 

At Niani and it was a thriving merchant city 

9

By 1000 CE where did Bantu people settle? 

In most parts of Africa. Kushite, Sudanese, Mande and other people had also establised communites in lands far from their orifinal homes 

10

What was the principal early result of Bangu and other migrations> 

It was to spread agriculture and herding to almost all parts of Africa 

11

When they established communities, what did the Bantu (or who) did they displace

The hunting and gathering peoples

12

After about 500 BCE what did the Bantu people have 

iron metallurgy 

13

What was the diatry staples of the people of south Africa 

Yams, sorghum, and millet 

14

When many people adopted cattle rasing before the Bantu and Kushite herders what did it do? 

Placed increased agricultural production,and pressure for continuing migrations to new territories 

15

The introduction of bananas to Africa encouraged what 

A fresh migratory surge

16

Where did bananas come from 

Southeast Asia, bananas entered Africa by way of sea lanes across the Indian Ocean. Malay seafarers from teh islands that make up Indonesia sailed west beyond india and colonized Madagacar and established banas there.

17

What did the Malay seafarers bring 

Asian yams, taro, chickens and southeast Asian cultr. malagasy 

18

What was the importance of Bananas to the Bantu people 

It helped to provide nutritious supplement to Bantu diets that enabled them to expand

19

What was the population of the Bantu before iron 

3.5 million 

20

By 800 CE, after th bana cultivation how much did it climbe 

to 17 million. Also, it climbed to 22 miillion 

21

The continuing Bangtu migrations and the expansion of Bantu population and the stabishment of communities contributed to the changing in relationships of Bantu and Foraging peopl 

Early, the Bantu said that they were useful guids, but it was increasingly difficult for foragers to flourish 

22

What is stateless societies 

They refer to one form of social organization widely prevalent in Africa during Bantu migrations, The term refers to the government that did not have much bureaucratic apparatus.

23

Where did Bantu people usually settle? 

They settled in vilages with populations averaging about one hundred people. Male heads made up the villiages ruling council  and the most prominent was a chief. A group of tribes was a district 

24

What type of societiy grew to be very large? 

Kin based societies 

25

After 1000 CE, kin based societies faced problems because of what

Population growth strained resources but few lands were avaliable for migrants to settle. Also, there were conflicts between villages and districts that became more frequent 

26

Because of more conflicts, what did bantu people have to organize 

They had to organize military forces.. 

27

What did many districts fall under 

They fell under the rule of chiefs.

28

What was one of the most active areas of development 

It was the basin of the congo River where there were many large kingdoms 

29

Because of population pressures, what happened 

Many small kingdoms were formed

30

By 1200. conflicts between the states had resulted in the organization of larger, regional principalities 

31

Describe the Kingdom of the Kongo 

Participated in trade networks that involved copper, raffia cloth and nximbu shells 

Governemtn: Included kings and officials who oversaw military, judical and financial affairs. It was the most tightly centralized of the early Bantu Kingdom. 

32

How was the government of the Kongo? 

King and other central administrators could appoint or replace local officials at will 

33

Explain some of the qualities of the Kingdom of the Kongo? 

it was very tightly centralized, local officials could be replaced at will, there was a royal currency based on cowries 

34

Has the Sahara desert ever served as a barrer? 

No, small numbers of nomadic people have lived in the desert. Mercahnts occasionally organized expeditions to the Sahara

35

What quicked the communication around the Sahara 

The arrival of the Camel

36

Where did the Camels come from 

From arabia by ways of Egypt. 

37

How fast could a camel travel? 

Fast, they could travel faster than a caravan 

38

Which group really integrated trade accross the Sahara 

Te Arabs 

39

The Arabs founded centers such as 

Gaoi which as a terminus of caravans and was a market for copper, iron ware and textiles

40

What was the principalstate of west africa at the tie of the Muslim's arrival? 

Ghana. It was situated between Snegal and Niger rivers

41

How many kings ruled Ghana before Muhammed embarked on the hijra? 

As many as 22 

42

When did Ghana really develp 

During the 4th or 5th century 

43

Why was Ghana the most important commercial site in the West? 

Because it was the center of Gold which came into high demande

44

Ghana did not produce gold, but how did the kings get some 

they got nuggest from lands to the south, probably from the Nigher, Gambia and Senegal rivers. The kings taxed the production of Gold 

45

What did Ghana also provide? 

ivory and slaves for traders from North Africa.

46

Where was Ghana's capital? 

It was at Koumbi - SAleh 

47

What did Al-Bakri describe the Ghanan Capital As? 

It was a flourishing site with many buildings and mosques. There were also QADIS or muslim scholors. There was a enormous Army 

48

What was the effect of the Ghana people converting to Islam? 

It improved relations with muslim states 

49

Did the Ghana king try to impose Islam

 No, Takrur did but Islam was not eaccepted exclusivly. Native traditions were still accepted. And there were idols even at the palace

50

As the Ghana kingdom expanded to the north, it becae 

more vulnerable to attacks by nomadic people from teh Sahara

51

What did Ghana people fall to? 

The powerful kingdom of Mali 

52

Sundiata built the Mali empire during 

The first half of the 13th century. He gained a reputaiton for courage in battle and had a large army dominated by cavalry 

53

Where did the Mali Empire extend to? 

Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, And Sierrra Leone 

54

How did Mali benefit from Trans-Sahara trade? 

Mali controlled and taxed all of the trade passing thrugh west Africa.

55

What was the Mali Capital 

Niani 

56

Many people went to Niani to trade Gold 

57

How did Mansa Musa observe Muslim traditions 

He made the hajj. He had a huge army people

58

What did Mansa Musa give to the peopel 

Lavish gifts. 

59

How did Mansa Musa draw great inspiration from the Muslim people 

He built mosques and brought Islam to Mali

60

Which empire overcame Mali 

the Songay Empire 

61

What linked the east coast of Africa

Merchant Mariners sailed around

62

Bantu people went where 

To the interior regions of east Africa and put some agricultural production there

63

What does Swahili mean 

Coasters. It refered to those who engaged in trade around the east African Coast 

64

The people spoke Swahili, but what did they do> 

Developed different dialects and mixed Bantu with Arabic. 

65

Trade came to several locations on the map, but why 

there was a lot of increase in trade. The people controlled and taxed trade, so it became quite easy to put their influence in there 

66

Te cities went under an impressive trasnformation how? 

They had buildings and many mosques. Also, corol made some buildings. Silk

67

Describe Kilwa

relied mostly on fishing and engaged in a limited amount of trade. They had to rely on agriculture and soomn they made  a lot of coper coins. Had a population 12 thousant 

68

Residents imported a lot of things 

silk, pearls, perfume, porcelain.

69

What was the effect of long distance trade for interior villiags? 

They still had wealth 

70

What does simbabwe mean 

Dwelling of a cheif 

71

The region of Zimbabwe had many what 

wooden residences. but, soon the residence swere made out of Stone.

72

The early 13th century, the Great Wall was built and itas what 

It was near Nyanda and it was a big complex which housed 18 thousand people 

73

How did Kings control stuff at Zimbabwe? 

They organized the flow of gold, ivory, slaves and local products from sources of supply to the wast 

74

What was the influence of Islam? 

It was popular, but they didnt give up their original faith. Islam was a good thing for trade and other things 

75

Sub-Saharan Africa had what? 

800 different languages 

76

What were the social structures? 

Ruling elites, military nobles, admistrative officials, religous authorities, wealthy merchants, common people, peasants,a nd slaves 

77

In small states, what did the social structures include? 

They included aristorcratic or ruling elite, religous authorities 

78

Kinship Groups 

The communities had equal ownership of all the lands and they could use it i ncomon. Had extended families. Male heads governed the villiage 

79

Workers with special skill were usually 

MEN

80

Women adn men participated in harvesting 

81

Women had

More opportunities in this cupture than usually. They could enjoy high honor as sources of ife. They also could be merchants or even be powerful

82

How did the arrival of Islam change the roles of Women

It did not 

83

What were Age Grades 

The African pratice of grouping age grades to perform tasks appropriate for their level of development. This allowed the formation of tight circles of friensds and political allies 

84

How were slaves in African Society 

they were usualy POWs or debetors or criminals. They wer ethe hold of wealth 

85

What was the Slave Trade 

Many outside continents wanted slaves because they were usfull. Also, large scale states be gan to make war with the smaller states in an effort to get slaves

86

What does the tern Zang mean> 

Black slaves essentially

87

What were the Zanj revolts

Basically, the slaves worked in very difficult conditions, bu Ali bin Muhammed organized a lot o revolts that captured Basra. It showed the importance of the slaves 

88

Many African people had what beliefs

They had monotheistic beliefs from the early days 

89

What did the people recognize 

A single divine force sthat sustained the world indirectly through spirits 

90

Africans recognize many lesser gods having to do with the 

sunm wind, rain, trees and natural featurs.

91

The lesser gods ddi what 

participated actively in the world. 

92

Like other religions, Africans had 

Diviners who could look at things supernaturally 

93

What was a good source of Chrisitanity 

Alexandria 

94

Which kingdom had Christianity 

Axum in Ethiopia because they wanted to improve relations with teh christian peoole 

95

Axum Christianity soon became what? 

An island in the middle of Islam. But the christians enjoyed favor 

96

During the 13th centry, Ethiopias leaders did what? 

Claimed descent to David and Solomon 

97

Kebra Negast did what 

Means Glory of Kings undertook to trace the lineage 

98

Christans retined what 

basic rules because they had little contact. But it still reflected the beliefs of Africans. They had the world as ahost of evil spirits. Had amulets.

99

Islam appealed to who

 ruling elites and Mercahtns and it was a foundationof buisiness 

100

Converts to Islam continued to do what? 

Take protective measures agains thte abd things 

101

What was the role of Islam? 

It suppleented the religion. 

102