30 November 1974, what happened?
A tape player played Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds...they had found Lucy
What were Lucy's physical features?
She was about 25-30...she stood just over 1 meter and weighted about 25 kgs.
Where was Lucy's fossil discovered
in Hadar, Ethiopia
What does analysis of Lucy's bone show?
The earliest ancestors ofmodern human beings waled upright on two feet. Erect walking is crucial for them, because they did not have big brains
When did the earth come into existance?
About 4.5 million years ago
During the past century or so, archaeologists, evolutionary biologists and other cholars have
increased the understanding of human origins and the ives or distant ancesotrs led
What is the percet difference in DNA between chimps and humans
Human beings stand out as the most distinctive of the prmate species because of what
they have been able to have a lot of intelligance
Where does discovereis in East Africa have human species
Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia and other places have had many bones
Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania and Hadar in Ethiopia have yielded
rich remains of those ike Lucy
A serisesThe individuals represented several difference species belonging to the species
Austrolopithecus wich flourished in east Africa during the long period from 4-1 million years ago
What family did Austrolopithicus belong to
the family Hominidae whcih includes himan and humanlike species.
What is Homo
the genus which biologists place the modern human being
Compared to our species, austrolopithecius would seem
short, hairy and limited intelligence. They stood something over 1 meter and weighed 25-55
Compared with other ape and animla speicies, however austrolopithecines were sophisticated creatures..how?
They walked upright on thwo legs whihc enabled them to use their arms independently for
What was one of the most important features of the austrolopithicus?
They had opposale thumbs that allowed them to grasp tools and perform intriate operations. They almost certainly had some ability to communicate verbally although speech was not huge
The intelligence of austrolopithecines was sufficient to allowe them to
plan complex ventures. HTey could often travel deliberately over 15 km.
What does Chemical analyses show ?
That the stone for which the australopithecines made tools was discovered and avaliable in only other sdtes
What were the tools that Austrolopithecines used>
They used choppers, scrapers, and other implements for food
BY 1 million years ago, austropithecines had disappeared as a new species of
What was teh new species of homonids
The Homo erectus..that had a larger brain..they had very sophisticated tools as well.
What tools did the homo erectus add to the early batch
htey added cleavers and hand axes which not only were useful in hunting and food prep but also provided protection against predators
What was one of the most important things that the Homo erectus also learned how to do?
Start and tend fires which furnished the speciies with a mean s of heat
Many sites associated with Homoerectus served as camps for communities of
Where did the omo erectus venture
To north Africa and to the Eurasian landmass.
Where did the Homo Erectus move 2 million years ago?
To southwest Asia beyond Europe, south asia, eas t Asia and southeast Asia
What was the most sucessful human species
Homo Sapiens...they evolved about 200,000 thousand years ago and have skillfully adapted to the natural envirnonment
What was teh anatomy of the brain like for Homo Sapiens
Possesed a large brain..one approaching the size of modern human brains. More important tha the size of the brain was the welll developed frontal regions wheere conscious reflective thought takes place
The physical features of the human brain
Intelligence, it enabed understanding of the world around them
What happened when the homo spaiens spread
They moved to the temperate lands of Africa,Europe and Asia where they encountered Homo erectus gorup that had inhabited htose regions for several hundred thousand years
What was the thing that Homo Sapiens did that established them successfully?
They went to colder regions, migrations that were possible because their intelligence allowed them to get warmer clothe
How Did homo sapiens isecure their presence
They spread throghout the eastern hemispere and populated the temperate ands of Africa, Europe an Asia where they encountered Homo Erectus groups that had inhabited those regions for several hundered thousand years.
Between sixty thousand and fifteen thousand ..Homo sapiens extended the range of Human opulation even
How were Homo Sapiens able to move cross contients?
Because of the land bridges
Where else did Homo Sapiens travel?
They went to Australia, New Guinea, and Siberia
The intellectual abilities enabled members of the Homo Sapiens species to recognize
Problems and possibilities in their environment and then take action that fabored their survival
What weapons ddi Homo Sapiens use?
They had knives,spears, bows and arrows. Individuals made dwellings or themselves in caves and in hutlike shelters fabricated from wood, bones and animal skins.
How did the Homo Sapiens keep themselves warm>
What was a result of Homo Sapiens big hunting
They made some mammals go extinct
What is Paleolithic Era>
The old stone age/ The principal cha
What was the principal characteristic of the paleolithic era?
That human beins foraged for their food. They hunted wild animals or gathered edible products of natural growing plants
In the absense of written records, scholars have drawn infrences about paleolithic economy and socitey
from other kinds of references
What are ways that you can get information about the Paleolithic era?
They could look at modern societies and they could look at ancient artifacts
A hunting and gathering prevents what?
Individuals from accumulaitng private property and basicng social distinctions on wealth. To survive, most hunters and gathers must follow the animals that they stalk
How did social distinctions arise
They were bsed on age, strngth, courage, intelligence, fertility, force of personality of someo ther traite
What were relations between the sexes .
Men traveled on hunting expeditions in search of large animals while women and children gathered food.
The hunters and gatherers would live mostly in
Small bands. Larger groups cou,d not move efficently or find enough food to survive over a long period
During times of drought or famine, what did small bands do?
They had trouble providing for eachother
What does survival of hunting bands depend on?
The natural environment
Archaeological remains show that early peoples also went about hunting and gathering in a
purposeful and intelligent manner
Because they often had to hunt large animals, what did the Homos develop
They had knives, spears, bows and arrows and devised special tactics for hunting these animals
Why was it important that they could talk
Because then they could communicate better with eachother and hunt better
In regions where the food resources were rich, few people in the late paleolithic times abandoned the nomadic lifestlye..but what were soem examples?
1. The Natufian society in the eastern Mediterrrnean (Israel and Lebanon)
2. The Jomon society in central Japan
3. Chinook society
They collected wild wheat and took animals from abundant antelope heds.
Harvested wild buckwheat and developed a productive fishing economy
Chinook society emerged after 300 BCE and had
berries, acornds nad massive salmon runs
What were the Paleolithic dwellings?
They were soemtimes in the form of long hosues that accomodated several hundred people but often in the form of smaller structures
Paleolithic settlements were usually in the form of what?
Long houses that occomodated many people
What was the normal population of many settlements?
of a thousand or more.
Did paleolithic individuals limit thier creative thinking to practical matters?
No, they reflected on the nature of human existance and the world around them
Where does the earliest evidence of reflective thought come from?
Sites associated with Neandertal peoples named after the Neander valley in western Germany where their remains first came to light
Whre did Neander people flourish
in Europe and southwest Asia between two hundred thousand and thirty 5 thousand years ago
What is the genus of the neander people
Homo neandertalansis. For about 10 millenia from
When did the Neandertal and the Sapien settlements inhabit the same place/
Around 45-35 thousand years ago. Neandertal groups inhabited some of the same regions
What does DNA Analysis suggest about the Neandertal and the Homo SApiens
Suggests tat there was little if any interbreeding between the two species, but it is likey that they traded goods
What does DNA evidence suggest?
That there was little if any interbreeding between the two species but it is likely that they traded
At several Neandertal sites, what have archaeologists discovered?
The signs of carefu deliberate burial accompanied by ritual beservances. Perhaps the most
Located north of Baghdad in modern day Iraq where survivors laid the deceased to rest on beds of freshly piced wild flowes and then covered the bodies wht shroudsand garlands of other flowes
Why were burial sites so complex
Perhaps because they wanted to honor thhe memory of the departed or they wanted ot prepare the dead for a new dimension of existance
What was the intellectual differences between Neandertal and Sapien
The Sapiens were much more creative. They owed this to the powerful thing of language. HTey were able to accumulate know
What were the implications of learning a language?>
Human beings were able to transmit kknowledge back and fourth which helped them to accumulate knowledge
200,00 thousand years ago, what wer ehomosapiens producing
140,000 years ago,
the early humans had learned to supplement thier diet with hsellfish from coastal waters and they had developed networks with neighbors that enabled them to trade high quality obsidian
110,000 years ago
devised a 'means of catching fish from deep aters
What were other inventions that homo sapiens had aroud that time
They made spear throwers that enabled them to hurl spears
What were artsy things that they came up wit
The ornamental beads, necklaces and bracelets
What was one of the most visually impressive creations of the early humans
The venus figurines.
What were the venus figurines?
They were women with grossly exaggerated sexualf eatures to show interest in fertility.
What is the most dramatic representation of prehistoric art
They were cave art that sometimes dates from 34 thousand years ago
What did the cave paintings have
they had many depications of large game
What was the reason for the cave paintings
worked for purely aesthetic reasons, to beautify thie rliving quarters, but many examles of cave art occur in places that are inaccessible to human beings. Reflects the artists interest
What is the best explaination for the cave paintings
to exercise sympathetic magic0 to gain control over all subjects by capturing their spirits
How did early artists get paint
They got it form plants, blood, saliva, water, animal fat and other available ingredients
A few societites of hunitng and gathering peoples inhabit the contemporary world., do they thrive
No, because other industires have taken over
new stone age a
When was the term neolithic used first?
because of refinements in tool making techniques, thye found polished stone tools in neolithhic sites rather than th echipped implements
Gradually, the term neolithic era came to describe what?
The era where people relied on cultivation
What did people facewhen depending on th ebouty of nature?
THey faced drought, famine, disease, floods,e xtreme temperatures and other natural dsaster
HOw did neolithic people ensure themselvesof a more regular food supplu?
By encourageing the growht of edible crops and bringing wild animals into dependence of human keepers
Who usually cared for the crops?
The women. As the principal gatherers in foraging communiteis, women became familier with the life cycles of the plants
What is the term that is used to describe the transition to the transition to agriculture?
Agricultrual revolution that is somewhat misleading
What is a more appropriate term to use coming into agriculture
Agriculture, including both the cultivation of crops and the domestication eemerged (Ind/dep)
Indpendantly in several different parts of the world.
What is the earliest evidence of an agricultral society
Was in southwest Asia where they cultivated wheat, barley, while domesticating sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle
What id dpeople in Africa cultivate?
They cultivated yams, okra, and black eyed peas
What was cultivated in east Asia
crops of millet nad osybeans after 5500 BCE. East Asian peoples also kept pigs and chickens form an early date
Peoples of the western hemisphere also turned independently to agriculture, what are some examples?
MEso Amercica cultivated maize, ans early as 400 BCE nad later added a range of affitional food crops includng beans peppers, quashes and tomatoes
Paleolithic peoples had huntd many large species to what?
What were some species that were hunted to extinction?
Mamoths, mastodons, horses had all disappeared form the Americas by 7000 BCE
What animals were suited for domestication>?
llamas, alpacas, and ginea pigs of the Nadean regions,
Once established, what happened to agriculture?
iT spread rapidly partly because of the methods of early cultivators. One of th
What was an early technique?
Slash and Burn
What happened to foods/
They spread from one region to another
Agriculture involved what?
log hours of hard physical labor-clearing land,preparing fields, planting seeds, pulling weeds
How long did paleolithic people spend on Agriculture?
They sepndabout 4 hours a day
In the wake of agricultural socitey came a series of social and cultural changes..what is one of the important ones?
Population iin 3000
populaiton in 2000
Population in 1000 BCE
Population in 500 BCE
The agricultraul exonomy and rapidlly increasing numbers encouraged neolithic peopels to adopt
new forms of social organization
What is the new change in life that the neolithic people had?
They no longer migrated around, but settled permanently
What was one of the earliet neolithic villages?
It was Jericho, site of a freshwater oasis norht of the Dead Sea in present day Israel whcih came into existence before 8000 BCE
Even in the early days, about how many residents did Jericho hav?
About 2000 residents
IN Jericho, what was the agriculture?
IT was mostly of barley and wheat. THey kept no domestic animsl
Did they peope of Jericho engage in trade?
They engaged in a limited amount of trade, particularl,y in salt and obsideia, a hard volcanic galss from which ancient peopel fashipned knives and blads
The concentration of large numbers of people in villages encouraged what?
Specialization of labor. Most people in neolithic villages cultivated crops or kept animals. Many also continued to hunt an dforage fro wild plants
What made it possible for thepeople to focus on their other jobs?
A surplus of food and other things
What is one of the best known labor settlements?
IN Catal HUyuk. It was located in south central Anatoila, and was occupied continuously from 7250-5400 BCE when residents abadoned the state
Originally a small and undistinguished neolithic village, what did Catal HUyuk frow into/
A bustling town, accomodating about ifve thousand inhabitants.
What did archaeologists uncover at the site Catal Huyuk
They uncovered many beads, metal tools, wood carvings, jewelry among other things
What three early crafts illustrate the potential of specialized labor?
POttery, metallurgy, and textile production
WHich society produced the world's first pottery
the Jomon society
The new enterprises relflected the conditons of early agricultrauls ocety
Either the craft industries provided tools and utensils needed by cultivators, or they made use of the new products in new ways
What was the earliest of the three craft industries to emerge?
POtter, Paleolithic gatherers had no use for pots. They did not store food for a long time, but as soon as there was a food producing society, it was needed
What twas the process of Potter
you could transform malleable clay into firehardended water proof pottery capable of storing dry or liquid products.
What was the earliest metal that humans worked with?
Soon, what was discovered by people...what they could do with copper
They knew that they could make it into jewelry, but they soon discovered that they could heat it to extremely high temperatures and then it would be very workable
BEcause natural fibers decay more easily than pottery or coppe,r, what is bad about the dating of textiles?
It is pretty uncertain
From when do fragments of textiles survive?
From as early as 6000 BCE. AS soon as they began to raise crops and keep animals,they experiemented with them
The invetion of textiles was probably the work of who?
The concentration of people made it possible for what to occur?
Social distinctions based on weath. Paleolithic social distinctions were mainly based on strength
What was the basis for social standings in the neolithic timses?
IT was land. Lnad is pretty much the ultimate source of wealth in any agricultrual society. Owenership of land carried enormous wealth in their families hand s and kept it htere for several generations
Quite apart from its social effects, agricuture left its mark on what?>
The cultrual dimension of the human experience. Because their lives and communities depended on teh successful cultivation of crops, neolithic farers colsely observed the natural world around them and noted th econditions that fabored successful harvests
From experience,what did neolithic people have?
What did agricultrual epople learn
when the change of season would take place, they learned to associate the different position with the sun, moon and stars. for seasons
Did paleolithic people have religion?
Yes, it was those Venus figurines. the neolithic religion relfected
What did the neolithic religion suggest the
the interst in fertilith, but it celebrated the rythems that governed natural society, birth, growth,d eath and regenerated life.
What did the neolithci gods include?
the life bearing venus type figurines of paleolithic times, but also deities associated wiht the cycle of lfife, death, and regeneration. Vegetation...associated these goddesses with animals such as frogs and other things
Within 4000 years of its introduction, what did agriculture done?
Transformed the face of the earth. HUman beings multiplueed prodigiously congregated in densely populated states
WHat was a new event that happened?
The development of cities and complex societies, organized around urban centers. W
How did cities differ from neolithci vilalges and towns ?
Cities were larger and more complex than neolithic vilalges and towns. There were a large class of professionals . Neolithic villages delivered its needs to its people and immediate peoples, but cities had big market places that attracted a lot of people