Who was one og the great world travelers of all time
MOroccan legal scholar Ibn battuta.
Where was Ibn Batutta born and when
in 1304, Tangier.
What was Ibn Battuata's ubringing/early life
He followed his family and studied Islamic Law. In 1325, he left Morocco and made a pilgrimage to Mecca. He traveled by caravan across North Africa . He then spent many years visiting Mesopotamia... Then he went to Bkhara and Samarkhand
When did Battuta arrive in Dehli?
He arrived in 1333
What did he do in India? (B)
He served as the qadi (judge) in the government of Muhammed ibn Tughluq the sultan of Dhli. IN 1341, he was appointed to head an enormous embassy in China. After a storm wrecked his ship, Battuta, made journies around the South Asia.
Why did Travelers embark on conquest?
For a variety of reasons
What were some of the reasons for conquest?
Nomadic people ranged widely in the course of migrations. East European and africa slaves travelled involuntarily aroud. Many riligious reasons
Merchants that engaged in long distance trade relied on what
two principal networks of trade routes. Luxury goods of high value relative to their own weight ( silk textile and precious stones).
What was the break down on where things travelled
The Luxury goods of high value often travelled overland while heavier commodities travelled over the sea lanes of the Indian ocean
Wat did the silk roads and trans saharan routes do
They drew West africa into the larger economy of the eastern hemisphere. The sea Lanes offered acces via the South Cina sea to ports in China and east Asia
As the volume of trade increased, what also increased?
The major trading cities and ports grew rapidly, attracting more buyers, sellers and bankers
What were some trading cities?
Khanbaliq, Hangzhou, Quanzhou, Melaka, Cambay, Samarkand, Hormuz, Baghdad, Caffa, Cairo, Alexandria, Kilwa, Constantinople, Venice, and Timbuktu. They all had large places occupied by foreign merchants
What was the temptation for a city that enjoyed strategic location?
LEvy excessive curstom fees. So, because of this, there was a major empirium serving long distance trade networks
Describe the Tax situation in melaka
Melaka was founded in the 1390s, and became a strading city. The authorityon the Strait of Melaka and maintinaed a safe market tha twelcomed many. Levied reasnable fees on goods exchanged there.
What did Tome Pires report
That more than 80 anguages could be heard on the streets of Melaka
What caused economic disruption throuhgout much of urasia?
Mongol conquests which inaguarated a long period of economic decline in Southwest Asia
What did the Mongols cause
A long period of economic decline in Southwest Asia. They consolidated thier rule there and destroyed the cities.
What did the Mongols lay the foundations for?
Long distnce trade, beauase they made it safe to travel
From Venice, he is the best known traveller, 1235-1324. He stayed in Khubabli Khan.
How was a historical accident good in preserving the details of Marco Polo's travels?
He was captured and made a prisoner of war during a conflict between Venice and Genoa. When he was imprisoned, he related tails of this travels to fellow prisoners. One of them was a writer and wrote it all down
Marco Polo's stories
were quite exaggerated but they deeply influenced other readers. He emntioned many things
Where did Marco Polo come from?
A family of merchants and merchants were the most avid readers of his story. Marco must have collaberated with other merchants
What do Marco Polo's experiences throw light on?
Long distance travel undertaken for political and diplomatic purposes
What did Marco polo report about Khubali Khan?
THat he was appointed as governr of the large trading city of Yangzhou, There is no evidence to confirm that, but it is likely that he did. This is because he represented Khan's interst in diplomatic missions
The emergence of elaborate trading networks and the establishment of vast imperial states created what?
A great demand for political and diplomatic rpresentation during the centuries after 1000 CE.
What was the 13th century the time of?
Activ diplomacy, where many praties were involved and sought a common alliance agaisntt the Muslims
During the 1240s and the 1250s, what did Pope Innocent do?
Dispatched a eries of envoys who invited many to convert in Christianity
How did th eKhans react to the suggestion to convert
said no, and told the Europeans that they must go under the Khan or face destruction
In 1287, the Mongol Ilkhan of Persia planned
to invade the Muslim lands of southest asia and wanted to capture Jersualmen. He
NEstorian Christian, and he ment with kings of France and England and other high officials. But, he did not attract European support for the illka. On ly later, Ghazan the ilkhan
The expansion of Islamic influence in the eastern hemisphere encouraged what?
A different kid of political motivated travel
What was the type of Islamic travel?
Travel because of the demand to teach
Who was the best known of the Musilim trvellers
What did Ibn Battuta do in Dehli?
Suvpervised the affairs of a wealthy mosque and heard cases at law which he stirctly enforced according to Islamic standards of Justice
After leaving North India, what did Battuta do?
He went to the Malfive islands and workedzealously to promote the proper islamic things
How did Islam also spread
by the work of Sufi mystics. The Sufis went to recently conqured or converted lands and sought to win a popular following for the faith in many places 100-1500
What was the Sufi doctorine
emphasized piety and evotion ot Allah, they even tolerated continuing reverence of traditin deities whom they were treated as manifiestation
Who accompanied the crusaders/?
The missionaries who traveled long distances in teh interests of spreading Christianity. Miss
Where did missionaries attract large converts?
Baltic Islands, SIicity, Spain
The most ambitious missions sought
to convert Mongols
As more Eeuropeans travelled to China, what happened?
Their expatriate communiteis created a demand for Roman Catholic services. many of the Roman priests intended to serve the needs of thier own communities
Who was the most active of the Roman Catholic missionaries in China?
John of Montecorvino, who went to China in 1291/. BEcame the fist archbishop of Khan baliq in 1307. Died there
What did John work on?
He worked on establishign Christianity in the host. He translated the New Testament to local language and baptized many families, taught language Latin baptized 6000 individuals
Were Christians successful?
Npo, they attracted few converts
Long distance travel encouraged what?
Cultural exchanges between people
What was transmitted among people?
Songs, stories, religious ideas, and philosophical views and scientiicknowledge all passed readily among travelers who ventured nto the larger world
What did troubadours of western Europe do
They dew on the poetry, music and lwove songs o the MUslim performers. European scientists avidly consulted others
What was an important diffusion of technology?
The unvention of the compass
Long distance journies enabled Muslim travelers to introduce what
new food and commerical crops to Sub Saharan Africa
What was the new crops
citrus fruits and Asian strains of rice which enriched diets in west Africa after the eeventh century. Muslims introduced cotton to west Africa whcih also became very very popular (1500)
Muslims were instrumental in the distribution of what?
Sugarcane. Muslim mercahnts and other travelrs had begun large scale cultivation of sugar cane in south west asia
By the 12th century, what did the Muslims face?
The expansion of the europeans. Who appreciated the sugar cane and organize dplantaiton in Sicily, Cyprus,Crete, and Rhodes.
Although Muslim merchants and travers wer especially promonent of diffusion who also helped
mongols. and Gunpowder
Where did GunPowder come from?
IT came from Chian. Where they used gunpoweder based weapons in their arsenal as early as 12414.In campaigns th e mongols sent this stuff spewing everywhere.
By the mid-thirteenth century, wahat had reached Europe?
Gunpoweder through Mongol Russia. BY the early 14th century, armies fom Chian possessed primative cannons.
What type of plague erupted?
About 1300 CE. what happened?
A process of global climatic change casued temperatures to decline significantly and abributly thoroughout much of the word. IT was a little ice age.
Where did bubonic plague spread from?
It spread form Unnan region of Southwestern China where it had been there from every where
The military campaigns of
the mongols helped the spread the Bubonic plague to the interior of the China..
When did the Bubonic plague spread?
IT spread during the 1340s when mongol Mercahtns and othe rtravelers spread the disease along the trade routes to points west of China,
Describe some effects of the Bubonic plague?
It entered the Black Sea in 1346 and infected other port sof Caffa and Tana, Inn 1347, Italian merchants fled plague infeced sea ports. The victims had lymph nodes, particularly in the neck, armpit and groin. many died within a few days and it was refered to as the black plague.
What percentage of its victims did the plague kill?
about 60-70 percent
What did people do to try and replenish deaths
They had more babies
What were the parts of the world that did not get very affected by th eplague
Scandinavia because it was cold, also Indiia (91-97) Sub Saharan Africa was also pretty safe.
How long did it take to recover from the plague?
About a century, IN 1300, Chinas populaition was reduced by cnflicts with the mongosl and was 85 million, but about 70 years later the population was only 75 million.
How did European Society come back from the plague?
From 79 million in 1300, it dropped to 60 million it took about a century to get back to around 81 million. Other underdeveloped regions that suffered setbacks took longer
WHo did the epidemics kill?
The young, the old and the weak, in high numbers. Many peasants, laborers, artisians, and crafts workes merchants, and bankers all fell.
How did workers react to the plague in Europe?
They demanded higher wages and many left their homes. POlitical authorities responded by freezing wages and forbidding wokrers to leave thier homes. Peasants also moved, but landlords resticted that
When did the Yuan Dynasty decline
in the mid 14th century
When did the Yuan dynasty collapse?
When the Yuan dynasty fell, what happened?
The governing peopl of CHina returned to CHinese hands. The new empoere came out of a very poor family an dentered a Buddist monastery to assure him of help. He became part of he military and helped to topple
What was the chinese emporers name?
Hongwu and he esablished the Ming dynast
What does Ming mena?
It means brilliant
What was Hongwi's first steps
To eliminate all traces of Mongol rule and establsh a government on th emodel of tradition Chirnse dynasties. He reestablished the OCnfucian eduationsystem and civil servie systems to ensure a spply of talented oficials
What was the centralization level of the Ming Dynasty
it was quite centralized. He execited people that he thought were treasonous
What were the mandarins
a special class of local officials made to implement policay
Who did the Ming Emporers also turn to?
The Enuches because they could not generate families an build a power base.
When did the Dynasty fall
What did the Ming emporers work towards when building a centralized administration
Economic recovery. The new ruler sconstr
What did the new rulers have to do?
They employed laboeres to rebuilkd irrigation systems that had fallen into disrepar and agricultural produciton . Promonted the manufacture of porcelain, lacquerware and fine silk and cotton textiles. They did not actively promote trade iwht other land but wanted private Chinese trade. and sometimes other merchants helped the others
What did the Ming dynsaty sponser
It sponsered a cultural revival in China. Hongu eradicatedall signs of the recent nomadic occupation by discouraging the use of Mongol names and the wearing the ht emongol dress. TActivelypromoted chiinese cultural traditions. Yongle organized the vast encyclopedia that complied sugnificant works of Chinese History, pholosophy and literature
What was the Yongle Encyclopedia
A compilation of all important works of Chinese history, philosophy and literature. It ran almost twenty three thousand manuscript rolls each equivalent to a medium sized book
By the late 15 century, what were the states in Europe?
They were Italy, Spain, France, England and Russia
When were the later middle ages and what were the problems?
The later middle ages were from 1300-1500 and the internal problems such as Bubonic plague comlicated the political affiars. The holy roman empire survived but after
Even though the Holy Roman Empire survived, where did the authority lay?
The authority really was wiht the Germmanic people and the Italian people
In Spain, who was the authority?
The authority was the descendents of the Muslim conquerors that held the kingdom of Grandaa
What was a major war tha thappened?
The hundred years war (1337-1453) whihc was a proracted series of intermittent campaign sin which the warring factions sought control of lands in Frnace. Russia also had issues, in 1230s, Mongols came and got Kieve
The state building efforts of the later middle ages involved two especially important elements
The first was development of sources of finance-through taxes. Also, maintenace of large standing armies.
Where did the state building rocess begin?
In italy, where profits form the industrial production and trade enriched the major cities.
What were the principal Italian states?
MIlan, Venice, Florence and Papal State and Naples had large number officials. They also needed acces to military forces.
How did Italian states finacne thier needs?
levying taxes directly oand issuing long term bonds that they repaid from treasury receipits.With fresh sources, they could strngthen thie rauthority
During the 14th and 15th centuris, what happened to Italian administrative methods?
They mad etheir way beyond the Alps partly because of the enormous expenses...France and England used those. Annual taxes and stuff. Rulers in both lands asserted their authority.
Where was the process of rebuilding the most dramatic?
In Spain where the marriage of Fernando of Aragon and Isable of Castile united the tow most important Iberian realms. Receipts form the sales tax support the army.
Under Ferdinand and Isabel, what happned?
The reconquista by getting Granada. The Catholic kings also expanded their raly. WHen A french army threatened Naples in 1494, Spanish forces also established hegemony
After the Mongol POwer waned, how id dRussian princes go/..
They sough to expand their territores. Most of the m that were successful wer ethe grand princes of Moscow.
Who was Grand Prince IvanII
Reigned 1462-1505, known as Ivan the Great.S topped paying ibute to the Mongol KHan he declared an Independent State! and made Moscow the center of a large and powerfuls tate
What was the principality of Moscow?
Muscovy and it alost tripped in sive. Many russian speakers came to his realm
What was the most important of IVG annexations
Novogorod. IT was a city state that governed its affairs through a council The town had strong ties to Poland and LIthuania to the wast and Ivan wanted to make sure that NOvgorods prosperity did not benefit neighboring states. He crushed the state and absorved it.
Ivan went as far as to call himself what?
The TSAR or the ruler.
What intensified as the European states came back?
The competition. which always supported small scale wars. It encouraged the rapid develpment of military and naval technology. As states sought technological advances.
The French Word renaissance menas
Rebirth and it refered to a round of aritistic and intellectual creativity that took place from teh 14 to 16 century and reflected the continuing develpment of a sophisitcated urban society
Where did painters and sculpturs draw their infuences from?
Classical greek and roman artists rather than from their medival predecessors. They admired the convincing realism of classical sculpture and simplicity,
What did Renaissance scholars do>
They wereknown as humanists and loked dto classical rather than medieval literacy models and they shough tot update medival moral thought and adapt it to the needs of siceity
How did Italian scity states sponser Renaissance innovations
In search of realizti depictions painters Masaccio (1401-1428) and Leonardo Da Vinci relied on the linera prespective to represent tehthree dimensions of real life on flat, two dimensional surfaces. Sculpers such as Donatello (1386-1466) and Michaelagelo sought to depict thier subjects in natural poses that reflect the workings of human muscles
Renaissance architets designed buildings in the simple, elegant style preferred by their classical Greek and Roman predecessors. TWhat was their most important acheivement?>
The construction of dome buildings that al. Inspired by the Pantheon it was reinvented by Fillippo Brunelleschi
What does the term humanist refer to?
Scholars interested in the umaniites, literature, history, and moral philosphy. They had nothing to do whith the secuar and antireligious movement
Renaissance humanits were deeply committed to what?
Christianity. They worked very hard to prepare accurate texts and translations of the NEw Testament and other important Christian wirtings.
What was the most important of the translation?
Desiderius Eramsus of Rotterdam in 1516 published the first edition of the Greek NEw Testament along wiht a revised Latin translation adn copuous annotations
What dd Humanists scorn at?
The dencse and convoluted writing style of the scholastic theologins. Instead, they prefereed the eegant and polished langauge of classical greek and roman authors and the eary Church fathers hwose works they considered more engaging and mor epersuasive than the weighty tomes of medival phiosophers and theologians.
Who was Petrarch?
A humanist who traveled throhgout Europe seerching for manuscripts of classical works/ in the monastic libraries of Italy, switzerland and southern France,
In the monastic libraries of Italy, Switzerland and southern France, what have htey found?
THey have found hundreds of latin writing s tha tmedival scholars had overlooked. During the fifteenth century, Italian humanists became acquainted with the byzantine body
Classical Greek and Latin values did what
encouraged the humanists to reconsider the medival eithical teachings. Medival moral philosophers had taught that the most honorable calling was that of monks and nuns. BUt the humanists dreq inspiration from classical auuthors such as Cicero who demonstrated tha tit was posisble to lead an morally virtual life while partiiating actively in the world
What did Renaissance art reflact"?
INcreasing European participation in the affairs of the eastern economy. As Merchants linked Europe to the lrge hemisphere, Europemn epople experienced prosperity. There were many foreign items.
The enchantment with the large world extended into where?
It extended into the realm of ideas. The ITalian humanist Giovanni Pico della Mirandola was perhaps one of the best relected the enthusianm of Renaissance scholoars to comprehend the world
What did Oration on the Dignity of Man
Pico wrote this, and made an efofrt to harmonize the divergen teaching sof Plato, ARistotle, Judaism and Christianity. HE limited information about serveral of the traditions he sough tto reconcile and sometimes offered superficial interpreations of doctorine sthat he imperfectly understood.
Did the Chinese emperors permit foreign mercahtns to obtain trade?
Ys, in closerly supervised ports of Quanzhou and Guangzhou where they obtained Chirnse silk, porcelain and manufactured goods in exchange for oearls, gems,spices, cotton fabrics and exotic products.
What did the Ming Government sponsor?
Sries of seven ambitious naval expeditions designed to establish a CHinse presence in the Indian Ocean basin. Emperor Yongle organized the expeditions for
Emperor Yongle orgnaized the expeditions for two main purposes?
To impose imperial control over foreign trade with Chian and to impress gorign people with the power and might of the Ming dynasty
Who was a famous Chinese Explorer?
Zheng He. He was a Muslim from Yunnan in southwestern China who rose through the ranks of eunuch administrators to become a trusted advisor.
How many ships were in Zheng He's voyage?
317 ships with 500 or more passengers as well as huge stores of cargo. Measuring up to 124 meters
WHere did Zheng He take his fleet to??
SOuthesast Asia, india and Ceyon. He aslo went to the PPErsian Gulf. He dispensed figts and recieved rich thing s
Xheng he sought to attian his goals through
diplomacy. For the most prtm his large contingents fo armed troops overrawd his hosts and he had littled nneed to engage in hostilitites but a contemporary reportd tha thenge he wanlked like a tiger. He ruthlessly suppressed pirates which lhad long plagued the Chinese poeple.
When did the Voyages end?
in 1430. Ming emperors decided to end the expeditions. This is because ZHeng he was mistrusted. Also, the financial ting was sever.
What did Europeans have a motive to do?
HTey wanted to extend Chrisitanity and profit from commerical opportunnities
had a long tradition of seafaring in the story Atlantic OCeann. Building on that experience, the Portugese mariners emerged as the early leaders.
What did Prince Henry the Navigator do?
Embarked ona n ambitious campaign to spread Christianity and increase portugese influence on the seas.
What did Henry the Navigator watch happening in in MCEuta
He watched the portugese influece take over the place. HEregarded the victory as a blow to SIlam
What did HEnry do?
Encouraged protugese mariners to venturyto the atlantic. During their voyages, they discovered the Madeiras and the Azoras and occupied. POrtugese cultivators beganto cultivate sugar cane.
Portugese explorers also
Explored arica. They traded guns, textiles nad other manufactured items for African commerce in slave sbut htey aslo change d the nagture of the slave tradd by dramatically sending slaves to new destnations
How many slaves
Where did Portugese people trade?
They traded in Asia and Africa
How did the Portugese get to Asia?
A Sea roue that enabled them to get there.. Wand avoid Muslim people.
Where did Bartolomeu Dias search for
A route to get to India he found the Cape of Good Hoep.
Where did Vasco De Gama go?
He went around the Cape of Good Hoep and went to get to India.
Cristopher Colomnis dod wjat?
Got the diea of sailing west ot reach Asian Markets.
Who sponsored Ferndo?
Isabel and Gernandoo
Did he ever acknowlege tha the didn't reach Asia