1827 , What did Betty Harris take a job as?
A drawer in a coal pit near Manchester, England.
What was a drawer's job?
it involved crawiling under narrow mine shafts and hauling loads of coal from the bottom of the pit, where miners chipped it from the earth to the surface
What was coal used for back then?
It was used to power steam englines nad other mills
What were conditions for drawers like?
They were horrible, because they had to wear belts that often ripped their skin. Also the women had to endure sexual ...harrasment?
What does Industrialization refer to?
A process that transformed agrarian handicraft- centered economies into economies distinguished by industry adn machine manufacture.
The principal feature in Industrial societies were?
technological and organizational changes that transformed manufacturing na dled to increased productivity. Critical to industrailzation were technological developments that made it possible to produce goods by machines rather than by hand tand that harnessed inanimate sources of energy.
By the mid 18th century, several areas of the world-...exhibited growing dynamic economis--these were?
Yangzi Delta in China, Hapan, and Great Britian
Why did areas develop?
SThey had high agricultural productivity in the regions, which resulted in population growth. This resulted in an increased population to work at tasks other than cultivation
What facilitated movement ..of products?
There were canals, and financial insititutions as well as cities and countires
What were ecological obstacles
Soil depletions and deforestation that threatened populationg rowth and consumtion levels
What played a huge role in the industrialization of Great BRitain>
COal, there was enough skills to extract this fuel and i created a promising framework for industrialiation.
What did the conquered and colonized land of the Mericas do for Europeans?
It lifted their land constraits by supplying European societies with a growing volume of primary products. During the eighteenth century, the slave based planatations o
The slave basedplantations of northeastern Brazil:
and the carribean socieities, and the southern United States suokued Eyripe with huge amounts of sugar and cotton,
What ddi one half of the proceeds from sugar exports pay for?
The importation of manufactured goods from Europe including cheap cotton cloth for slaves to wear.
During the 17th century, what was going on in India with the Englsh?
English consumers had become fond of calicoes, which were printed textiles from India. Cototn cloth came into demand because it was lighter to wash and quicker to dry than wool which was the principal fabric of European clothes befor ethe 19th century
Threatened by the popularity of cotton products, what did BRitish wool producers do?
THey convinced Parliament to pass a series of laws to protect the domestic woolindustry.
What were the Calico Acts of 1720-1721?
They prohibited imports of printed cotton cloth and restricted the sale of calicoes at home.
What did Jon Kay invent?
he invented the flying shuttle. This device speeded the weaving process up na dstimulated the demand for thread/ Within a few years, competitions among the inventors resulted in the creation of several mechanical spinning devices.
What was Samuel Cropton's mule?
It was byuilt in 1779, Adapted for steam power by 1790, the mul became the device of choice for spinning cotton. It could produce a lot of cotton
What did the new spinnig machines create in manufacturing?
An imbalance because weavers could not keep up wiht the production of thread, so innovators turned thier attention next to weaving. In 1
In 1785, what did Edmund Cartwright patent?
A water driven power loom that inagurated an era of mechanical weaving. Within two decades, steeam moved te power loom and by the 1820s, it had largely supplemented hadn weavers
What ddi James Watt invent?
The general purpose steam engine. Steam engines burned coal to boil water and create steam which drove mechani
Steam engines burned coal to boil water and create steam which drove mechanical// but those devices consumed too much fuel to be useful for other purposes/ Watt's version relied on steam to force a piston to turn a wheel///
What term do Watt's temporaries use to measure energy generated by his steam engine?
horsepower to measure the energy generated
Innovation did not stop iwth cotton production and stam engines, the iron and steel industry also bene fitted
technological refinement nad the availability of inexpensive, high quality iron and steel reinforced as the move toward materialism
After 1709, what did British smelters begin to use?
coke, which was a purified form of coal, rather than more expensive charcoal as a ful to produce iron. Deforestation in England had made wood the principl source of charcoal
The ninteenth century was the age of what?
Steel, rather tahn iron. Steel is much harder, stronger and more resilient but until the ninteenth century, it was very expensive to produce...between 1740 and 1850 a series of improvements simpllified the process
Steam engineerign and metallurgical innovations both contributed to improvements in transportation technology James Watt's steam engine did not adapt well to transport uses because it consumed too much coal. After his patent expired, what happened?
George Stephenson a self educated Englishmean built the first steam powered locomotive. Because they had the capacity to carry huge cargoes, railroads and steamships dramatically lowered transportaiton costs. They also contributed to the creation of dense transportation
Because they had the capacity to carry huge cargoes, railroads and steamships dramatically did what
reduced transportation costs. They also contributed ot the creation of dense networks that linked remote interior regions and distant shores
What did the factory system replace/
IT relaced the putting out system and the protoindustrial factoires and became the characteristic method of produciton in industrial economies. It began to emerge in teh late 18th centry
Many of the newly developed machines were too :
large and expensive for home use and bit became necessary to move work to locations wheere entreprenuers and engineers built complicated machinery for large scale production. THis centraliation o production brought together mroe works
What did Adam Smith describe on wealth of nations?
he used a pin factory to escribe thenew system of manufacture. One man draws out the wire, another strightens it, and a third cuts it
An Englishmand with a wooden leg who owned a poetry factory and held his employees to high standards in effort
With its new divisions of labor, what did the factory system allow people to do?
maagers to imporve woker productivty and realize spectacular increases in the output of manufactured goods. But the new environment had unsettling effects
What class did the factory system lead to the emergence of?
Of an owner class whose capitl fincanced equipmne tnad machinery that were too expensive for weokrs to acquire
Equally distributing was the new work discipline and the pace of wokr. What dictated work?
The clocks..there were new things
Were handicraft wokrers who went on a rampage and destroyed textile machines tat they blamed for their low wages and unemployment. They called thier leader king Lud
By the mid 19th century, where had industrialization spread?
It had spread to France, Germany, Belgium and the United States. The French revolution and the Nopoleonic wars set the stage
What helped set the satge for industrialzation in western Euroep?
Nopoleonic wars by abolishing internal trade barriers naddismantling guilds that discouraged tehcnological innovation and restricted th emovement of laborers. The earliest continental center of industrucal produciton was belgiu, where coal, iron, textie, glass nad armaments production lourished
proceseded more slowly than did Belgian and French partly because of political instability , resulting form compettion between the many German states
After the 1840s, however, German coal and iron production soared and by the 1850s, an extensive railroad network was under construction. After unification, what did Bismark's government sponser?
Rapid industrialization in Germany, IN the interets of strengthening BIsmarck encouraged the development of heavy industy
How did INdustrialization transform America?
the United States possessed abundant land and natural resources btut few laboeres and little money to invest in business enterprises. Both labor and investme
Where did labor and investment capital come from in the Untied State?
form Euroep> migrants crossed the Atantic in large numbers throughout the nineteenth century, and European bankers and business people eagerly sought opportunities to investin business that made use of American natura resources
American industrailization began in the 1820s when entrpreneurs lured British crafts workers to NEw England and built whaT
A cotton industry.
How was teh vast size of the UntiedStates advantageous to industrialsts?
It made abundant natural resources available to them, but also hindered travel and communication between the regions. To facilitate transportation and distribution, state governments built canals
Cotton textiles were the major factory made products during the early phse of industrailization but new machinery and techniques made it possible to do what?
Extend the factory system to other coutnries
He was the inventor tfo the cotton gin, and also developed the tehcnique of using machine tools to produce large quantities of interchangable parts in the making of irearms
He invented the asssmeby
As the factory evovled so did the organization of business..how?
Industial achinery and actories were expensive instrumewnts and encouraged the private business
Furing the 1850 and 1860s, government authorites in Britain and France laid the legal foundations for what
the modern cooprperation, a business owned by hundreds, thousands or even millions of individuals and insttutaionla investor
When a corporationflourished, investors recieved what
their stake fromteh company, but suffered when it was having financial difficulties
What marketing techniqes were used?
What isCrystal Palace?
It is a magnificent glas s structure made uo of iron and glass the enclosed trees, gardens fountains.
What happened as a result of industrialization
list the population changess
from 1700-1800- the popularion increased in europe from 150-180 million, t went to 390 million
17800-1800- population of north Amerca surged frise from 13-24
What was teh demographic transition
shifting patterns of fertilty and mortality. As industrialization transofrmed societies, fertliity began a markeed decided
There was a development of something realllllly impotant
Birth Control! It was frist made out of animal intestins and it came into use in the 17th centry.
WIth urbinization came what?
INtensified environmental pollution . Although cities have alway been putrid, the rapid increase in population dramaticly increased polution.
What determined the level of comfort incities?
Income..the wealthy typically tried to insulate themselves the best theyhad from urban discomforts
Rapid population growth in Europe encouraged what?
Massive migtaions to the united states
What were the new social classes that came as a result of industralization?
Captians of industry and enterprising people were wealthy. There were alo factory managers, enirneers, accountants, that were skilled employees of coroporation
The most basic unit of industrialization was the
FAmily. They always worked together
Men and society?
They gained increasing stature and rsponsibioity in the industrial age as work dominated public life. When production moved outside the home, some me became owners. BUlk f family income
Had to be married and work, THey would leave theirchild in the care of someone elseses baby
There was a book, called woman in her social domestic character..who wasit written by
Mrs. JOhn Sanford
Children started having it
Work. HTey had to make a contribtion to the family income
Among the most vocal and influential critics of early industrail society were the
Socialists who worked to alleviate the social adn economic problems generated by capitalism and industrialization. THey explored the vast dffreence in wealth.
Origins of socialism
First appeared around 1830 referred to the socia critics such as Charles Fourier snad Robert OWen. THey worked to establish ideal comunities held together by love
Marx and Engles...communism
They scored at the socialists and believed that the social problems wee the result of the capitalist economy . There were those who wned industrial machinery and those ho were the wroking class
Name some communist books?
Capital, Manifesto of the comomunist party which argued that the furure lay with teh working class because of the alaws of history dictated that capitalism would enxorably grind to a halt
Parlimentary acts did what?
They expanded the franchise for men by deucingstuff for male suffrace
Sougt to advance the quest for a just society. Enhanced social securiity
INdustrialization in Russia
Encourageing railroads. Moscow to Vladvostock. Russian ndustry experienced growth when count srgei seved as minister
Indusrialism in Japan
Modernized things, like foundries and dockyards. Railroads. and Zaibatsu which were like trusts