When the yuan dynasty collapsed, what dynasty filled its gap?
The Ming dynasty restored native rule to China.
What did Hongwu, the founder of the ming dynasty make it into?
He made a tightly centralized state, extensive use of mandarines, imperial officals and enuches.
What did Yongle launch that threw China into the social scene>
He launche dmaritime exploration
As the ming Emporers were determined to prevent invasions, what did htey do>
Moved the capital from Nanjing in the south to Beijing. They also made better armies
What was the Great Wall?
It was along the norhtern border, nad had precedents dating back to the fourth century. th efirst emperor of the qin dynsaty had ordered it to be built. It was real long
Why did the Ming rule decline?
Because therewere Japanese pirates that operated at the coast and the navy was prety much ineffective.
Where did administrators live?
They lived in the Forbidden city, and they had a lot of indulgences
Why did the Ming Dynasty fal
Because of the MAnchu invasions and the Peasant uprisings
When the Ming dynasty fell, the Pure dynsaty came, what was ethe backgrond of the Manchus?
HTey were pastoral nomads, although many had turned to agriculturea nd settled in the rich farmlands of southern Manchuria
Under Nurhaci, unified manchu tribes into a
centralized place, with a code of law and all tha tjazz
What did the Manchus do during their rule?
THey captured Korea and Mongolia and laucnehd small scale invasions in Chian. After thier sezure of Beijuing, they went elsewhere. Also,
What was support or the Manchus like?
THere was a lot of support because, there was orruptions in the Confucian scholor bureacrats who worked against the ming since they despised the enuchs, who dominated the imperial court
What were two famous emporers?
Kangxi and Quianlong, helped the Manchus consolidate their hold on Chian.
Was a Confucian scholor and an enlightened reader. He studied the COnfucian classics and sought to apply thier teachigns through his policies. He oversaw Taiwan..
high point of the Qin dynasty, he had a lot of powems and there were tax collectiosn.
What did Qianlong do?
Paid less attention to imperial affairs and delegated many responsibilities to his favorite enuch s
What was the Son of Heaven
It was the person designated to rule, he led a good lie in the Forbidden city,and his daily activities were carefully hcoreographed. He had a sense of authority, written characters of the emperors name were tabook throughout the realm.
Day to day governance of the emprie fell to who?
Scolor bureacrats. They were very very smart. preparations for thier exams began really early. Sometimes they took pace in local scools, which like th ecivil service examinatiosn, were open only to males.
What did these exams consist of?
THey consisted of a battery of tests adminsitered at the district, provincial, and metropolitan levels. Stiff offical quotas resticted the number of successful candidates.
What was teh hardest part of teh service exam?
The eight legged essays
What did the Exam show?
The possibilty of bureacratic services, with preosects for rich social and finacial rewards ensured competition.
What was the nature of the Chinese family
It was hierarchal, patriarchal and authoritarian. The father was head of the hosuehold and he passed leadership of the family to his eldest son. Fillial Piety. IT was descent down the mans line
What were the Gender relations?
Females were not liked, there was a lot of foot binding, because you couldn't do anything if you were crippled
China was a predominantly ___ society
agricultural socieyt, afact that was vey correct.
Chinese peasants cultivated what, and what allowed the population to rise,
they cultivated rice, wheat and millet, and they started cultivting maize, potatoes and peanuts
What did Chinese workers produce vast quantities of?
They produced vast quantities of silk, procelain, lacquerware and tea for consumers in the Inian Ocean Basin, central Asia, and Europe. The Silk indus
Silk Industry in China
It was very well organized, weavers worked in shopes for regular wages,a nd produced a lot of stuff.
When did the most economic and commercial expanison take place?
It took place during Yongles rule, and when he sought ot establish a Chinese presence in the Indian ocean basin. Zheng he called at many ports
What happened to foreing tradeand Cine?
It stopped because htey didn't want anything to do with foreingners. They permitted Portugese and BRitish..tahtats all
Where were Cinese merchants popular?
THey worked in individual partnerships in the waters. They exchanged silk and porcelain for Americain silver that came across the Pacific OCean wiht the Manila galleons. THey also worked with the VOC
What happeend to the technology?
IT stalled because of lack of trade.
Who was teh highest in Society after the emperor of cose
It was the scholor bureacrats, they occupied the best positions in Chiense society, because of their official positions, they ranked above the gentry. liek a lot.
How were Scholar bureacucrats and gentry easy to identify?
They wore distinctive clothing, black gowns with blue borders, and commoners addressd them with honorific terms
What did most of the genrtry own?
THe owned and which was their majr source of income. As long as they did not have ot perform physical labor, osome gentry also supplemented htier income by operating rice shops
What was teh ranking accroding to Confucian classes?
There were peasants at the top, artisians, then merchants. MErchants were considered socia parasites
Those who recognized the opportunities opportunities had the potential to do what?
Climb the social lader and make income
What was the last, and so called mean class?
It was the warriors
What was the confucian education systems, heart?
THe hanlin academy, a research institute for COnfucian scholoars in Beijing, and maintianed provcinicaol schools throhgout Chine
What were some popular encyclopedias
KangxiL Collection of books,
Qianlong:Complete Library of..stuff
While imperial cities promoted Confucianism, what took place in cities?
A lively pop cultur
What were some popular books, and why could htey spread
Printin, Romance of three kingodms, Dream of the red chamer , journey to the west
WHo was the most prominent missionary?
Matteo Ricc,i and he was Jesuit. Ricci learned about Confucian tradition and CHinese
Because Ricci had mastered chinese, what were the Jesuits able to do?
HTey were able to show the Chinese a lot of technology and other htings.
How was Chrisitanity Portrayed?
It was portrayed as being very similar to Confucianism. Ricci wrote the true maning of heaven in which he argued that htey were very similar
HWho ended the jEsuits misisons?
The pope, because the Franciscans and D complained
What is aShogun?
It is a military governor, who rued Japan through retainers and recieved poltical rights and large estatesin exchange for military services
What is SEngoku?
The country at war.
Towardteh end of the sixteenth centry, powerful states emerged in several regions of Japan, and a series of military leaders brought hte unifiation, who was the last
Tokugawa Ieyasu, who ruled a military government known as the bafku which was a temporary government
What was the principal aim of the shoguns
To stabalize their ream and preven t the return of a civl war. THey needed to control the daiymo-powerful lords who ruled most of Japan
How did the government control the daiymo?
They made them spend every other year withthe Shogun
How were foregin relations controled?
There were a series of edict sthat restricted Japanese relatiosn wiht ther ladnds, that remained inefect for a long time. THe policy forbade Japanese from going aborad on tpain of death and prohibited lots of trade
The Tokugawa authorits were able to reduce what?
The numbers of armed profesional warriers s o they pusehd daimyo and samuri to becaome bureacurats and govenrment functionaries
Where did princpal income come from?
The form of rice ultivated form peasant cultivators. THey conerted the rice into money
What religion did Shoguns promote?
NEo confucianism wiht emphasis on filial piety and loyalt to superiors. The NEo ocnfucian provided a respectable ideological underpinning for the educationla curriculum
What did people want to maintain?
What did urban culture focus on?
ukiyo(entertainment and pleasure quarters where teahouses, theaters, brothels,a nd public baths offered escape from social responsibilities
One of japan's prolific poets helped create a new genre of prose literature, the books of the floating world. Much of his fiction revolved around the themeof love
It was a Theater, that was quite prominent . They were skits that were performed
What did Jesuits seek in Japan,
Like chine they wanted converts. Many powrful daimyo adopted Christianity with trading intersts
What was the anit Christ Campaign abut
Itwas about the conversion of Chrisitanity, and how it made the Japanse made.. Japanese hristians had to renounce their faith. OCmpare it to the inquisition
Dutch merchants became very prominet. A small number cmae and brought knowledge of the outside. European art influenced Japanese scholors interest...