On 8 July, 1497, the POrtugese mariner Vasco da Gama led a small fleet of four armed merchant vessels with 170 men...where was he going?
He was going to Inda, and going around Africa
What did Da Gama carry?
He carried letters of introduction form the king of Portugal as well as cargoes of gold, pearls, wool textiles, bronzeware, iron tools, and other goods that he oped to exchange in spices
Before there was an opportunity to trade, da Gama and his crew had a prolonged voyage through two oceans, they sailed south
What did thePortugese find in India?
they found a cosmopolatin society/
Between 1400-1800, what did European mariners launched a remarkable series of explorations voyages that took them to all the earths waters with th eexception of the
extreme polar regions
What did the voyages enable European mariners dto do?
chart the world's ocean basins and develop an accurate understanding of world
Private investors and overnment authorities had strong motives to have what?
Who were the most prominent explorers?
Mariners from the poor and hardscarabble kingdom of Potugal were the most proment
Portugese seamen ventured away from the coasts and into the open Atlantic Ocean, what did they want?
Fish, seals, whales, timber, and lands where they could grow wheat to supplement the meager resources
What did Europeans want?
They were looking for basic resources, lands suitable for cultivation of cash crops, and trade routes
iN the 14th century, what did the Portugese discover?
The uninhabited lands of Azores and Maderias. THey were called the Canary Islands
What did people often go to plant?
Why did Europeans want to explore the world's oceans?
The search for cash crops, lands and resources, and trade routes
Where were some portugese plantations?
IN Sao Tome, Cape Verde Islands, Principe, Fernando PO
What were some events that promoted trade? Maritime Trade....
Th e fall of the Mongol empire, European merchants often traveled overland as far as China to trade with the collapse of the mOngol Empires and the spread of the bubonic plague....Muslim mariners continued to bring Asian goods through the Indian Ocean and Red Sea....
What items were regarded as necessary
Indina pepper, Chinese ginger, as expensive necessities and htey especially prized cloves and nutmeg from Maluku
What trade also beckoned Europeans?
African trade beocned them to sea. Since the twelfth century, Europeans had purchased west African gold, ivory, slaves delivered by trans Saharan camel caravans of Muslim merhcants to north African ports
What was a very important commondity?
Gold, because it was they way people were paid
What also went along with trade goods?
Beginning in the leventh century, western Europeans had launched a series of crusades and holy wars against who>
The musims in Palestine, the Mediterranean Islands, and Ibera. Crusading zeal remained espcially strong in Iberia.
Prince Henry, the navigator prmoted voyages of eploration in west Africa specifically to enter?
The gold trade, discover profitable new trade routes, gain intelligence about the extent of MUsim power, win converts to Christianity, and make alliances against Muslims
What types of technology did Mariners need/
HTey need sturdy ships. navigational equipment, and saling tehcnqies
What were some things that came to Europeans?
They had a sternpost, they had lateen ( manuverable and could cathc winds form the sdie) square sails enabled them to take full advantage of teh winds
The most important navigational equpment on bored these vessels were
magnetic compasses and astrolabes that helped them naviage
What is the astrolabe?
IT is a simplified version of the compass
European mariner's ability to determine direction and latitude enabled tem to assemble a vast body of data about
the earth's geogaphy and to find thier way around the world's oceans with tolerable accuracy and eficiency.
Between 5-25 degres latitude both north and south, what direction do winds blow?
30-60 latitude, where do the winds blow?
They blwo in a different pattern. During summers the monsoon winds blow from the southeast
What is teh volta do mar
Return through the sea, which let them just go through the sea until they foudn westerly routes
Prince Henry of Portugal?
He conquored the Moroccan port of Ceuta and sponsereda series of voyages in the west African coast
Because of Prince Henry, where were colonies established?
In Sao Jorge da Mina and othe rstrategic locations, there, they exchanged European horses, leather, textiles and metal wares
WHo were two explorere who came after Prince Henry's time?
vasco da gama, who got to IDnia, and Bartolemeu Diaz
What place in India was a trading post established?
Cristoforo Columbus wanted to reach Asia by what route?
By a sea route, he didn't anticipate the existance o the American plate
Because of what voyage did support for Columbus not come readily?
Because of Diaz
Who ultimately supported Columbus?
Fernando and ISabel of Spain agreed to underwrite Colbus's expedition
Where did the name of the stereotypeical Indians come from?
THey came form the Taino, the place that the Taino inhabited. Columbus came to Cuanahani
Where did Columbus first land?
He first landed in Guanhani, which was rechrisitaned as San Salvador
When people herd about Columbus's empire, what did htey do?
They flocked to the Maericas
What did Vasco Nunex de Balboa sight?
the Pacific Ocean
What did Dernado Magellan do?
e traveled around the world, in the serivce of spain
What was Magellans navigation life?
He went around South America, in the Pacific, and siled throuhg the strait of magellan. People got scruvy on the ship, and everyone was really hungry
How did Magellan die?
A local dispute took his life.
What was the norhtwst PAssage?
People thought that you could get to Asia by means of going through the north. Called the norhtwest Passage
Led expideitions to hawaii
Where ddi Dutch forces establish prcense?
in the Philippenesand Indonia respectively. In a parallel effort involving expansion across land rather than ea
Where did Russian Mariners establish a prescence?
In central Asian regions, formerly ruled by the mongols
portugese mariners built the earliest trading post emprie, what was their goal?
To control routes.
What were soem portugese ports?
Calicut, Sao Jorge, and Hormuz
commander of POrtugese forces in the Indian Ocean during the ealry 16th century. Seized Hormuz, Goa,
What was the aggressive policy of Afonso d'Alboquerque
He wnated to control Indina Ocean trade by forcing all merchnat ships to purchase safe conduct passes
What happened if the ships broke Alboquerque's rule?
THey were confiscated, and punished
In realty, did the portugese control the trade?
No, htey did not have enough vessels to enforce the commanders orders, Arab, Indian, controlled as well
Why did portugeseinfluence wane?
BEcause it was a small contry with a small population
What buisiness did the Dutch and English have in the area?
They built trading posts on the Asian coasts and sought to channel trade through them, but did not attempt to control the high seas.
What advantages did the Dutch and the English ahve?
THey had faster, cheaper and more pwerful ships which offered both an ecomonic and miliatary edge over htier competitors
What were the companies that came up, form the dutch places?
English, East india Company (1600)and Dutch VOC (1602)
What did the English adn Dutch experience?
Following voyages of exploration ot the western hemisphere,w hat did Eropeans do to indigenous people?
conquered them, and built territorial empires, and established colonies settled by European migrants
What two isands did Europeans largely impose their rule in?
The philippines and Indonesia. Though denely populated, neither the Philippenes, nor Indonesia had powerful states
Who was the commander when the Spanish forces seized the phillipenes? Lopez de Legazpu, who named the islands after King Pullip II of Spain
Because the Philippines had no central government, was there any organized resistance?
No, they saw a lot of small, disunited chiefdoms. By 1575, what did the Spanish ofrces control? Most of the coastal regions which fell to the Spanish ships and guns
By 1575, what did Spanish kingoms have
They contorlled most areas around the coast
What did Spanish policy in the Philippines revolve around?
It revolved around trae and Chiristinaity. Manil
What was Manila like?
Manila soon emerged soon emerged as a bustling, multcultural pot city. Chinese merchants were especially prominet there
They supplied the Silk goods, that Spanish traders shipped to....
Mexico in the Manilla galleons
What did the Spanish sought to spread?
They sought to spread Chrisitinaity, missionaries pressured Filiphino's to convert to Chriistianity
What things spread among the native's filipino's
Dutch mariners who imposed their rule on the islands of Indonesia did not worry about seeking what?
Chrisitnanity, but instead on the trade in spices, particularly cloves, nutmeg, and mace
Who was the architect of Dutch polic?
Was Jan Pieterzoon coen, who founded Batavia on the islands of Java to serve
Batavia occupied a strategic site, near Sunda Strait and its market attracted
Chines and Malay vessels.
What was Coen's plan for the Dutch?
To establish VOC control (a monopoly over spice production and trade, thus enabling Dutch merchants to reap enormous profits in European markets.
How did the Dutch get what they wanted?
Although they were too few for them to rule drirectly, over thier whole southeast Asian empre. They amade alliances wit local authorites to maintain their monopoly
Russian forces took over several mongol khanates in central Asia, these acquisitions resulted in?
Russian control over the Volga river and offered opportunities for trade and other things
What were the Russians able to control?
They were able to control the Volga River, which let them hve some trade
The territory that the Russians got gave them control over what?
Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Far more extenisve were Russian acqusation in...
What territory that the russians got provided lots of fur for them?
It was Siberia. The wealthy Stroganov family captured the Khanate of Sibir
Siberia is home ot how many ethnic groups?
To about 26 ethnic groups. There are a bunch of different languages and religions. They also responded to russian arrival in different ways
What were ways that people responded?
They responded in different ways, either giving fur or resenting. Yakut peoplesmounted a revolt
What ddi Russians try to do?
Convert to Christianity
The settlers who established a Russian presence i Siberia included
Social misfits, convicted riminals and prisoners of war. People slowly started to make settlmnts
What did exploration and expansion lead to?
conflicts between Europeans and Asians but among Europeans themselves. Mariners competed for trade in Asia,and the Americas
Commercial and Political rivalries lead to what?
Wars, adn they enabled the VOC to domanite the spice trade. Dutch forces expelled most Portugese merchants form southeast Asia and prevented English mariners from establishing stuff
What was the 7 years war?
It was a global conflict that took place in Europe, India and the carribean. Everyone was fiting...Britain got a huge empire
What were biological exchanges?
It wsa the Columbian exchange which sent a lot of disease, animlas, food crops and other thing s.
Before the voyages of exploration, none of the maladies had reached the western hemisphere, or Oceana
Where did imported disease have the worst toll?
IN the aztec and inca Empires, they did not spare other regions however
What crops and stuff did the Columbian exchange spread?
It spread food, such as potatoes, beans, tomatoes, peppers, peanuts, manioc, papyas, guavas, and avacados...as well as wheat, vines, horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats,a ndchicken
What did the Columbian exchnge also give?
It involved the spread of humn poplatiosn through transoceanic migraition, whether voluntry or forced
Besides stimulating commerce in the eastern hemisphere, what d dithe voyages of the European merchants do?
They encouraged the emergence of globaltrade. There were many manufactured things that traveled all places
What were the Manila galleons?
They were sleek, fast, heavily armed ships capable of carrying large cargoes regularly on the Pacific Ocean
Where did the Manila galleons venture?
They went to Asia, taking lucury good with them, hey took precious metal, made in chin. The demand for silver was really high...
What were the environmental implications of the transoceanic trade?
places fell under enviromnetal pressure, and there were species dying out.