Flashcards in Study Guide: CHP 10 -- Motivation and Emotion Deck (32):
1. INSTINCT THEORY OF MOTIVATION?
--> "all organisms are born with INNATE BIOLOGICAL TENDENCIES that help them survive." -- all behavior is driven by instincts vs. learning...
1. INCENTIVE THEORY?
- proposes that EXTERNAL STIMULI regulates MOTIVATION (e.g. ice cream, juicy steak, monetary prize, approval, A on exam...)
- PUSH(drive theory:homeostasis) vs. PULL THEORY(source of motivation lies OUTSIDE of organism, in the environment)
- STRESSES ENVIRONMENTAL factors and DOWNPLAYS BIOLOGICAL BASES of human motivation.
2. role of HYPOTHALAMUS in hunger motivation?
- REGULATES HUNGER: LATERAL hypothalamus and VENTROMEDIAL nucleus are the brain's on-off switches that control hunger
- ARCUATE NUCLEUS: contains group of neurons that is sensitive to incoming hunger signals
- note: its the NEURAL CIRCUITS that pass thru areas of the hypothalamus rather than the anatomical centers in the brain.
2. role of GLUCOSE in hunger motivation?
- GLUCOSE is a simple sugar which circulates in the blood
- a decrease in BLOOD GLUCOSE level can INCREASE HUNGER and vice versa
2. role of VAGUS NERVE in hunger motivation?
- is a CRANIAL NERVE
- when your stomach DISTENDS, the vagus nerve sends message to brainstem which tells it that you are full --> inhibits eating
- research has shown that a VAGOTOMY (cutting the vagus nerve) curbs the feeling of hunger
2. role of INSULIN in hunger motivation?
- INSULIN: HORMONE secreted by the PANCREAS; causes cells in the LIVER, SKELETAL MUSCLES, and FAT TISSUE to absorb glucose from the blood. (not enough insulin causes DIABETES)
-->insulin levels increase when people EAT
2. role of LEPTIN in hunger motivation?
- produced by FAT CELLS thruout the body and released into BLOODSTREAM (higher levels of fat give off higher levels of leptin)
- provides info to hypothalamus about body's fat stores
- hunger tends to diminish when leptin levels are high
4. How do GENETIC FACTORS influence OBESITY?
- study: adults raised by foster parents compared w/ biological and foster parents w/ regards to BODY MASS INDEX --> found out that adoptees resembled BIOLOGICAL PARENTS much more than adoptive parents; + twin study (identical vs. fraternal)
- conclusion: genetic factors account for 61% of variation of weight in MEN; and 73% women; some people can inherit a GENETIC VULNERABILITY to obesity
4. How does SET POINT influence OBESITY?
= NATURAL POINT of STABILITY in body WEIGHT;
ppl who have a genetic predisposition towards obesity will have a hard time losing the weight, because according to the set point theory, there will be a strong tendency for them to gain back the weight they lost
5. How does PARENTAL INVESTMENT THEORY influence SEXUAL BEHAVIOR?
- PARENTAL INVESTMENT: what each sex has to invest: in terms of time, energy, survival risk... to nurture offspring.
--> male: make SMALLER INVESTMENTS so pursue mating opportunities more VIGOROUSLY; OVERESTIMATE women's sexual interest in them;
-->female: make BIGGER INVESTMENTS, so more CONSERVATIVE and SELECTIVE;
6. What FACTORS (often unconsciously) influence MATE PREFERENCES? How can these preferences be explained?
- more emphasis on YOUTHFULNESS, ATTRACTIVENESS (will they have healthy children?)
- more emphasis on INTELLIGENCE, AMBITION, INCOME, SOCIAL STATUS...(can they provide??)
- can be explained with PARENTAL INVESTMENT THEORY
7. How is SEXUAL ORIENTATION explained?
- END POINTS on a CONTINUUM? devised a seven point scale (completely heterosexual --> completely gay)
- still haven't found biological basis for homosexuality; twins studies suggest there IS a genetic predisposition towards homosexuality-->abnormalities in prenatal hormones during neurological development
8. Describe characteristics of individuals with HIGH ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTATION. (5)
- tend to work HARDER and more PERSISTENTLY on tasks
- handle NEGATIVE FEEDBACK more effectively
- more FUTURE-ORIENTED-->more likely to DELAY GRATIFICATION in pursuit of LONG-TERM GOALS
- HIGH CORRELATION b/w high achievement and EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT-->go into competitive, entrepreneurial occupations
- tend to select TASKS of INTERMEDIATE DIFFICULTY(want a moderate degree of challenge)
9. Identify ATKINSON's SITUATIONAL DETERMINANTS of ACHIEVEMENT BEHAVIOR. (4)
SITUATIONAL DETERMINANT: vary from one situation to another
- the amount of MOTIVATION TO ACHIEVE SUCCESS
- the PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS
- the INCENTIVE VALUE OF SUCCESS(how big is the personal reward?)
- EMOTION(e.g. anger, jealousy...) can lead to motivation and vice versa (e.g. fail at an exam you studied very hard for...)
10. How to GENETIC FACTORS, FAMILY ENVIRONMENT, and CULTURE influence ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION?
- AUTONOMIC NS (depends on genetics --> more sensitive, less sensitive...)
- REWARD PATHWAYS (ppl who have more myelinization and stronger connections..more motivated to achieve because more rewarding...)
FAMILY environment: supportive parents
- some cultures VALUE ACHIEVEMENT more than others..
- what do we DEFINE as achievement? helps the group(what's going to meet my family needs)? helps the individual?
11. How can GOAL SETTING influence ACHIEVEMENT?
- the VALUE of the GOAL
- whether you decide the goal, or someone else gives it to you
- whether it's CLEAR and SPECFIC
- PERSONAL? or SOCIAL(what society sets for you...) goals?
12. Describe MANAGEMENT PRACTICES that contribute to WORKPLACE MOTIVATION MOTIVATION.
- a performer on CHALLENGING TASKING should have LESS STRUCTURE(e.g. brain surgeon);
- person on a BASIC TASK should have MORE STRUCTURE(e.g. factory worker)
- + BARRONS studies
13. Describe 4 TYPES of CONFLICTING MOTIVES that can CAUSE STRESS.
- check BARRON
14. Evaluate and explain our capacity to FORECAST EMOTIONAL RESPONSES.
- we're not very good at ANTICIPATING our emotional responses --> predict wrong INTENSITY and DURATION of emotion. (over exaggerate or underestimate...)
- if we over exaggerate it means we want to protect ourselves; if you know someone's going to punch you and it doesn't feel as bad.
- we're actually good at getting over things because we are really good at rationalize
15. How does AUTONOMIC AROUSAL influence EMOTION?
- AUTONOMIC NS: regulates the activity of GLANDS, HORMONES, SMOOTH MUSCLES, and BLOOD VESSELS (fight or flight response); emotions accompanied by VISCERAL AROUSAL.
--> in particular HORMONAL CHANGES play a CRUCIAL role in EMOTIONAL responses to STRESS
- notable: GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE: increase in ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY of skin when sweat glands increase activity --> POLYGRAPH
15. How does MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE PATHWAY influence EMOTION?
- plays a MAJOR ROLE in the experience of PLEASURABLE EMOTIONS associated with REWARDING EVENTS; "brain's pleasure center"
--> is activated by COCAINE and other abused drugs as well as NATURAL REINFORCERS such as FOOD and SEX.
- reward pathway is strong..easier for us to be resilient...
15. How does AMYGDALA influence EMOTION?
- plays a CENTRAL ROLE in the ACQUISITION of CONDITIONED FEARS; senses a threat? almost instantly triggers neural activity that leads to AUTONOMIC arousal.
- some theorize that it lies at the CORE of a complex set of NEURAL CIRCUITS that process emotion.
- thalamus routes information along fast(directly to amygdala) and slow pathway (frontal cortex for processing)
15. How does PREFRONTAL CORTEX influence EMOTION?
- prefrontal cortex: PLANNING and EXECUTIVE CONTROL
- contributes to efforts of VOLUNTARY CONTROL of EMOTIONAL REACTIONS
15. How does MIRROR NEURONS influence EMOTION?
- mirror neurons: activated by performing an action or seeing another person perform the action.
- play an important role in the experience of EMPATHY.
16. How has DAVIDSON's research enriched our understanding of the NEUROLOGY of EMOTIONS?
-->emotions are PREDICTABLE because they are ROOTED in the STRUCTURE of our brains.
-->we have EMOTIONAL STYLES comprised of 6 basic DIMENSIONS, which can be traced to different structures in the BRAIN:
(e.g. RESILIENCE: signals b/w amygdala and prefrontal cortex;OUTLOOK; SOCIAL INTUITION...)
17. How does FACIAL FEEDBACK influence our COMMUNICATION of EMOTION?
- people are generally able to identify SIX FUNDAMENTAL EMOTIONS: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust (innate? same across cultures; blind ppl can do it)
- some even say that muscular feedback from facial expressions even contribute to the experience of the emotion (if you force yourself to smile you feel better!)
18. Describe CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES and SIMILARITIES of EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIONS.
- considerable agreement in identification of the SIX BASIC EMOTIONS;
- also seem to EVALUATE SITUATIONS the same (fair vs. unfair; pleasant vs. unpleasant; expected vs. unexpected...); achievement leads to joy; injustice to anger; risk to fear...
- how people CATEGORIZE EMOTIONS: tahitians have no words for sadness; many nonwestern groups including china have no word for depression; BUT lack of words for emotional concepts does NOT mean that these emotions are not recognized in the culture;
- DISPLAY RULES (norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotion) also VARY: japanese socialized to mask anger, sadness, and disgust.
19. Explain the EVOLUTIONARY theory of EMOTION. (2)
- emotions evolved to give ppl an advantage
- certain emotions are innate, primary emotions from which all other emotions derive from.
e.g. two groups of ppl cross bridge (one long and rickety, other, wide and stable) then introduced to young woman.
e.g. football players after game more likely to get into a bar fight
--> PHYSIOLOGICAL arousal from one experience CARIES OVER to influence emotion in an INDEPENDENT situation (only works if secondary situation happens immediately)
--> SCHACTER'S THEORY
3. What FACTORS influence the INCENTIVE VALUE of food? (4)
- QUANTITY AVAILABLE
- PRESENCE OF OTHERS
- "Increased arousal can help improve performance, but only up to a certain point. At the point when arousal becomes excessive, performance diminishes."
- e.g. rats in a maze, electric shocks up to a certain voltage motivated them to complete a maze...