Week 4 Impact of Lifestyle on DB Prevention and Management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 4 Impact of Lifestyle on DB Prevention and Management Deck (25):
1

what is your increase in risk if both parents have T2DM?

6x

2

Define Epidemic

incidence of a disesase substantially exceeds what is expected based on recent experience

3

what condition is the largest risk factor for developing T2DM

pre-diabetes (3-5x higher risk for developing T2DM)

4

in general, what accounts for the vascular issues associated with diabetes?

Chronic hyperglycemia plays a major role in the initiation of diabetic vascular complications through many metabolic and structural derangements

5

what are the microvascular issues associated with DM?3

neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy....note: it makes sense that these issues could arise in T1DM as there is also chronic hyperglycemia

6

what are the macrovascular issues associated with DM?

cardio (CVD, HTN) and cerebrovascular disease (stroke)

7

what are some behavioral risk factors associated with T2DM? 5

obesity, sedentary life, smoking, Short (9hours) sleep, poor diet

8

An individual with impaired glucose tolerance or mild insulin resistance is often classified as ....

pre-diabetic

9

what is primary prevention of diabetes?

preventing the disease. reversing pre-diabetes to prevent full blown diabetes

10

what is secondary prevention of diabetes?

limit the complication associated with diabetes

11

what is tertiary prevention of diabetes

decrease disabilities or prevent death brought about by diabetes complication

12

define pre-diabetes

a reversible cardio metabolic risk factor in which plasma glucose levels are above normal but not high enough to diagnose T2DM

13

what is the A1C assocaited with pre-diabetes?

between 5.7 and 6.4%

14

is pre-diabetes a benign condition?

no, if your have IGT/IFG you still are at risk for other complications (CVD)

15

define IGT:

two-hour glucose level of 140 to 199 mg/dL after a person drinks 75 g gluocse solution following an overnight fast

16

what were the outcomes of the diabetes prevention program study? what was the set-up?

three groups: placebo, metformin, lifestyle change each with pre-diabetes (IFG or IGT). lifestyle had the largest reduction in risk of developing diabetes, then metformin, then placebo. 1 kg weight loss resulted in 16% reduction in incidence of T2DM

17

is metformin useful across all BMIs?

no, metformin was shown to only significantly reduce risk in individuals with a BMI > 35

18

What was the study question in the Look AHEAD study?

will intentional weight loss (intensive lifestyle intervention) reduce the incidence of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events

19

what was the goal of the "intensive lifestyle intervention" in the Look AHEAD study?

lose 7-10% of initial body weight: physical activity, diet, weight loss pills

20

What were the results of the Look AHEAD study?

their ABCs were better (lower A1C, lower blood pressure, lower cholesterol)

21

the ABCs of T2DM are...

the major risk factors for CVD

22

medical nutrition therapy of T2DM should accomplish (4)

decrease caloric intake, weight management, consistency in carb intake (avoid erratic blood sugars and hypoglycemia), nutritional content

23

Independent of weight loss, what were the findings in altering macronutrient composition of a diabetic diet?

little evidence that altering macronutrient composition of diet has significant effect on glycemic control. there is not ideal diet. diets should be individualized

24

what is the physical activity recomendation for all adults?

30 min PA/day ~5days/wk

25

what is the "Legacy Effect"

early glucose control has a continued positive effects in years (10 years) to come

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