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Flashcards in Adult - Cardiology I Deck (32):
1

Murmur
grade I/VI

barely audible

2

Murmur
grade II/VI

audible but faint

3

Murmur
grade III/VI

moderately loud
NO THRILL

4

Murmur
grade IV/VI

ASSOCIATED WITH A THRILL

5

Murmur
grade V/VI

heard with one edge of stethescope off chest wall

6

Murmur
grade VI/VI

heard from across the room

7

Which are the valves that tend to get adults "in the most amount of trouble"?

Mitral
Aortic

the LEFT heart valves

8

Which valve is associated with 2nd intercostal space?

aortic

9

Which valve is associated with 5th intercostal space?

mitral

10

What mnemonic works for diastolic murmur related to valvular disease?

MS ARD

mitral
stenosis
aortic
regurg

diastolic

11

What mnemonic works for systolic murmur related to valvular disease?

MR ASS

mitral
regurg
aortic
stenosis

systolic

12

What are the 4 types of heart failure?

systolic
diastolic
acute
chronic

13

Systolic heart failure has to do with inability to...

contract (which is what happens in systole)

14

In the big picture, what type of medication treats systolic heart failure?

inotrope

15

What do inotropes do?
Examples of inotropes

positive inotropes increase the strength of muscle contractility

(dopamine, dobutamin, digoxin)

16

Diastolic heart failure has to do with inability to...

relax and fill (which is what happens in diastole)

17

In the big picture, what type of medication treats diastolic heart failure?

dilator

18

Acute heart failure usually develops as a result of...

MI or valve rupture

abrupt onset

19

Which side of the heart is affected by acute heart failure?

L

therefore, the blood backs up into the LUNGS

20

What are the signs and symptoms of acute / L heart failure?

LUNG symptoms

rales
wheezing
frothy cough
S3 gallop

21

Chronic heart failure develops as a result of...

inadequate compensatory mechanisms

most common cause of R heart failure is L heart failure

22

What are the signs and symptoms of chronic / R heart failure?

SYSTEMIC symptoms

hepatosplenomegaly
JVD
dependent edema
S3 and/or S4

23

What is the most informative diagnostic test for heart failure and why?

echocardiogram

provides info on valve movement, wall movement, ejection fraction

24

management

x

25

NY Heart Association Heart Failure Classification -
At what stage do symptoms first appear?

stage 2

(stage 1 is asymptomatic)

26

NY Heart Association Heart Failure Classification -
What is the difference between stage 2 and stage 3?

stage 2 features SLIGHT limitations
stage 3 features MARKED limitations

both are comfortable at rest

27

NY Heart Association Heart Failure Classification -
what is the defining characteristic of stage 4?

symptomatic always, even at rest

28

What will a CXR show in heart failure? (3)

pulmonary edema
Kerley B lines
effusions

29

What is the difference between effusion and infiltrate?

effusion is fluid in the pleural space, which compressed the lung upward

infiltrate is within the lung itself

30

What is atelectasis?

collapse of all or part of the lung - develops when alveoli become deflated

31

What is the non-pharmacologic treatment for heart failure? (3)

sodium restriction
rest/activity balance
weight reduction

32

What is the pharmacologic treatment for heart failure?

***ACE inhibitors (-pril)***

Diuretics

if A fib also --> anticoagulation therapy