Flashcards in Leukemia and Lymphoma Deck (32):
Definition of Leukemia
Neoplasms arising from the hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow
(cells gone haywire in the blood-making cells of the marrow)
How are the four types of leukemia classified?
Acute vs Chronic
Lymphocytic vs. Non-lymphocytic/Myelogenous
Which ACUTE leukemia is more common in adults?
ANL/AML (Acute Non-Lymphocytic/Myelogenous)
= 80% of acute cases
ANL/AML long term survival rate as a percentage?
~40% in adults
Hallmark of ALL?
Pancytopenia with circulating blasts
("ALL cells are decreased - blast!")
Which is the MOST COMMON leukemia in adults?
CLL - chronic lymphocytic leukemia
What is the hallmark of the most common leukemia in adults, which is CLL?
Lymphocytosis - increase in number of lymphocytes
What are lymphocytes?
one type of WBC category
include T cells, B cells, NK cells
(main type of cells found in lymph)
Both CHRONIC leukemias (CLL and CML) occur in which stage of adulthood?
More typically found in middle and older adults
What is the median survival of CML in years?
3 - 4 years
What is the median survival of CLL in years?
in CLL, the most common adult leukemia
Which leukemia has Philadelphia chromosomes as its hallmark?
the less common of the adult chronic leukemias
Early signs of leukemia?
May be asymptomatic or vague -
More ominous - and typically later - signs of leukemia?
What test usually distinguishes acute from chronic leukemia (though does not CONFIRM the diagnosis)?
A peripheral blood smear DISTINGUISHES.
What test confirms the diagnosis of leukemia?
A bone marrow aspiration CONFIRMS.
What is done to manage leukemia?
Bone marrow transplantation
Control of symptoms
How is lymphoma diagnosed?
biopsy of lymph node
When does a lymph node need to be biopsied?
> 1 cm
not related to infection
present > 4 - 6 weeks
Lymphoma stage 1 is:
localized to single lymph node or group
Lymphoma stage 2 is:
confined to ONE SIDE of the DIAPHRAGM
Lymphoma stage 3:
occurs on BOTH SIDES of the DIAPHRAGM
Lymphoma stage 4 is:
liver or bone marrow involvement
What age adult is typically affected by lymphoma?
the younger adult
What are the two types lymphoma? Which is more predictable?
Hodgkin's is more predictable
What is a common initial presentation of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma?
Predictable or unpredictable pattern of spread?
less predictable than Hodgkin's
What cells are a feature of Hodgkin's lymphoma?
What is the typical initial presentation of Hodgkin's Lymphoma?
Is radiation usually a part of treatment for leukemia or lymphoma?
What does the management of lymphoma include?
bone marrow transplantation