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Flashcards in Leukemia and Lymphoma Deck (32):
1

Definition of Leukemia

Neoplasms arising from the hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow
(cells gone haywire in the blood-making cells of the marrow)

2

How are the four types of leukemia classified?

Acute vs Chronic

Lymphocytic vs. Non-lymphocytic/Myelogenous

3

Which ACUTE leukemia is more common in adults?

ANL/AML (Acute Non-Lymphocytic/Myelogenous)

= 80% of acute cases

4

ANL/AML long term survival rate as a percentage?

~40% in adults

5

Hallmark of ALL?

Pancytopenia with circulating blasts

("ALL cells are decreased - blast!")

6

Which is the MOST COMMON leukemia in adults?

CLL - chronic lymphocytic leukemia

7

What is the hallmark of the most common leukemia in adults, which is CLL?

Lymphocytosis - increase in number of lymphocytes

8

What are lymphocytes?

one type of WBC category

include T cells, B cells, NK cells

(main type of cells found in lymph)

9

Both CHRONIC leukemias (CLL and CML) occur in which stage of adulthood?

More typically found in middle and older adults

10

What is the median survival of CML in years?

3 - 4 years

11

What is the median survival of CLL in years?

10 years

in CLL, the most common adult leukemia

12

Which leukemia has Philadelphia chromosomes as its hallmark?

CML

the less common of the adult chronic leukemias

13

Early signs of leukemia?

May be asymptomatic or vague -
fatigue
weakness
anorexia

14

More ominous - and typically later - signs of leukemia?

Generalized lymphadenopathy
Weight loss

15

What test usually distinguishes acute from chronic leukemia (though does not CONFIRM the diagnosis)?

A peripheral blood smear DISTINGUISHES.

16

What test confirms the diagnosis of leukemia?

A bone marrow aspiration CONFIRMS.

17

What is done to manage leukemia?

Chemo
Bone marrow transplantation
Control of symptoms

18

How is lymphoma diagnosed?

biopsy of lymph node

19

When does a lymph node need to be biopsied?

> 1 cm
not related to infection
present > 4 - 6 weeks

20

Lymphoma stage 1 is:

localized to single lymph node or group

21

Lymphoma stage 2 is:

confined to ONE SIDE of the DIAPHRAGM

22

Lymphoma stage 3:

occurs on BOTH SIDES of the DIAPHRAGM

23

Lymphoma stage 4 is:

really bad
liver or bone marrow involvement

24

What age adult is typically affected by lymphoma?

the younger adult

25

What are the two types lymphoma? Which is more predictable?

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Hodgkin's is more predictable

26

What is a common initial presentation of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

lymphadenopathy

27

Predictable or unpredictable pattern of spread?

less predictable than Hodgkin's

28

What cells are a feature of Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Reed-Sternberg cells

29

What is the typical initial presentation of Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

cervical adenopathy

30

Is radiation usually a part of treatment for leukemia or lymphoma?

lymphoma

31

What does the management of lymphoma include?

Radiation
chemotherapy
bone marrow transplantation

32

What is the TNM tumor classification system?

T for tumor size - 0 to 4
N for lymph node involvement - 0 to 3
M for distant metastasis 0 or 1

worst is T4, N3, M1