Flashcards in Peds - Hematologic Deck (26)
What can early ingestion of cow's milk cause?
(prior to 9 months)
micro-hemorrhage from the gut, leading to anemia
What can lead to iron deficiency anemia in toddler's?
Reliance on whole milk at the expense of solid food.
What nail changes may be associated with anemia?
flat, brittle, or spoon-shaped nails
Laboratory findings in IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
MCV - low (microcytic)
MCHC - low (hypochromic)
RDW - increased
TIBC - increased (available slots)
Serum ferritin - low (stores)
Serum iron - low
Reticulocyte count - low if low Fe is cause, hi if bleeding, or in thalassemia
Which anemias tend to be found in children?
MICROcytic - HYPOchromic (small cell, less color)
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA)
NORMOcytic, NORMOchromic can too
acute blood loss
Which anemias tend to be found in adults?
Treatment for iron deficiency anemia
Elemental iron until HEMOGLOBIN normalizes
Replace iron stores with supplementation x 4 months
IRON OVERLOAD can cause what two serious conditions?
What can giving iron to a person with Thalassemia cause?
they don't have the binding sites to use the extra iron
Laboratory findings in Thalassemia that differ from IDA.
Reticulocyte count is increased
TIBC is low (no open slots, hence risk for iron overload)
Thalassemia is typically seen in what populations?
Treatment for thalassemia
Refer to hematology
Genetics variations of sickle cell -
which is carrier which is symptomatic?
HOMOzygous - Hgb SS - symptomatic
HETEROzygous - Hgb AS - carrier, usually no clinical symptoms
Features of blood work findings in sickle cell? (4)
o nucleated RBCs
o reticulocytosis (10-25%)
o Howell-Jolly bodies
o WBCs elevated
Support for sickle cell crisis (5)
What medication can be given to stimulate fetal hemoglobin (which doesn't sickle)?
What supplement is important for those with sickle cell?
Which anemia can lead poisoning lead to?
iron deficiency anemia
Where does the body store lead?
At what point is chelation therapy used for lead poisoning?
Class IV: 45-69 mcg/dL
A group of malignant hematological diseases in which normal bone marrow elements are replaced by abnormal, poorly differentiated lymphocytes known as blast cells.
Is bone and joint pain an early or a late sign in leukemia?
What are red flags for leukemia?
Lympadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly
especially with recent fatigue, bleeding, and frequent infection
Which is the most common leukemia in children?
ALL - Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia = 70%
Epidemiology of pediatric ALL?
peak age 4 years
more boys than girls