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Flashcards in Toddler and Preschool Deck (48):
1

Toddler defined

1 to 3 years

2

Preschooler defined

4 to 5 years

3

Toddler and Preschool -
cognitive focus?

PREOPERATIONAL
2 to 4 years - preconceptual
4 to 7 years - intuitive

4

Toddler -
psychosocial focus?

autonomy

5

Preschool -
psychosocial focus?

initiative

6

Toddler and Preschool -
when to start doing blood pressure checks?

3 years

7

Anthropometrics
defined?
examples?

the measurement of the human individual

head circumference, lenghth, height, weight

8

Toddler and Preschool -
age limit on Denver II?

can be used up to age 6 years

9

Toddler -
lab work?

hematocrit
lead screening
cholesterol

10

Preschool -
lab work?

PPD

11

Toddler -
Well child check schedule?

12, 15, 18, 24, 30, 36 months

12

Preschool -
Well child check schedule?

annually at ages 3, 4, and 5 years

13

Toddler and Preschool -
progression of exam?

non-invasive to invasive
limited time undressed

14

Toddler -
anterior fontanel closes by what age?

18 months

15

Toddler -
measure head circumference until what age?

2 years

16

Toddler and Preschool -
location of PMI?

4th intercostal space, L mid-clavicular line

17

Genu valgum

"knock-knees"

normal variant up to age 7
(knees are stuck together with GUM)

18

Genu varum

"bow-legged"

normal variant up to age 2
(too much RUM, causes a wide legged stance)

19

by age 2 years

GROSS MOTOR
up and down steps
kicks ball without falling
runs with wide gait

FINE MOTOR
tower of 8 cubes
turns doorknob

LANGUAGE
50 word vocabulary
can follow 2 step commands
talks constantly

WARNING SIGNS
is not walking up stairs
is not using 2-3 word sentences
is not noticing cars, animals

20

by age 3 years

GROSS MOTOR
hops at 3.5 years
rides a tricycle

FINE MOTOR
copies a circle
builds a tower

LANGUAGE
up to 900 word vocabulary

WARNING SIGNS
is not aware of external environment
cannot ride tricycle
does not follow simple direction
continues baby talk
does not imitate adult activities

21

by age 4 years

GROSS MOTOR
up and down stairs with ALTERNATING FEET
rides bicycle with training wheels

FINE MOTOR
draws a person with 4 to 6 parts
tower of 10 blocks

LANGUAGE
can understand phrases and simple analogies

WARNING SIGNS
does not listen to a story
does not speak in sentences
engages in head banging or rocking
is not toilet trained
does not draw a human figure

22

by age 5 years

GROSS MOTOR
skips
jumps rope
plays ball

FINE MOTOR
copies a square and other shapes
prints letters
ties shoes

LANGUAGE
vocabulary > 2000 words
uses sentences regularly
knows at least 4 colors

WARNING SIGNS
magical thinking still dominates
lack of impulse control

23

Language development -
number of meaningful words in sentences?

Equivalent to age in years -
2 word sentences at age 2, etc.

24

Toddlers -
type of play?

onlooker and parallel play

25

Preschool -
type of play?

associative, cooperative, dramatic, physical play

26

Visual acuity by age 5?

20/30

27

Toddler -
begins to use a spoon at what age?

15 - 17 months

28

Toddler -
Gold standard for diagnosis of developmental delays?

Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development
up to 42 months of age
mental, motor, and behavioral rating scales

29

Toddler and Preschool -
at what age do nightmares begin?

age 3 years
can describe

30

Toddler and Preschool -
in what age range do night terrors occur?

2 to 6 years
outgrow
no recall

31

Toddler -
readiness for toilet training begins in what age range?

1.5 to 2.5 years

32

Toddler and Preschool - developmental warning signs
at 1 year

is not imitating sounds
is not pulling to standing
is not pointing/gesturing

33

Toddler and Preschool - developmental warning signs
at 18 months

does not make eye contact
does not feed self with spoon

34

Stuttering
when to refer?

lasts longer than 6 months
child is older than 6 years
child avoids speaking

35

Pervasive Developmental Disorders -
an umbrella term include what conditions?

Autism
Asperger's syndrome
Rett's disorder
Child disintigrative disorder

36

Between Autism and Aspberger's, which may exhibit language delay?

Autism

37

Rett's disorder -
males, females, or both?

Females

38

Rett's disorder -
described as?

distinct neurodegenerative developmental regression following a period of normal functioning through first 5 months of life

39

Rett's disorder -
etiology?

unknown

40

Rett's disorder -
clinical presentation

stalling of developmental progression
loss of previous skills
stereotypic hand movements (hummingbirds near mouth)
apraxia
delayed head growth
seizures
scoliosis
hypotonicity

41

Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) -
described as?

marked regression of multiple areas of functioning following at least 2 years of apparently normal development

42

Higher functioning adolescents with autism are at increased risk for which other condition?

OCD

43

Holding a glass with one hand is an example of a fine motor skill typically acheived by what age group?

Preschoolers

44

According to Erikson, the major psychological task between 1 and 2 years of age is the development of:

autonomy

45

Why is skim milk insufficient for a 16 month old?

It does not contain enough of the essential fatty acids

46

What is the most sophisticated and advanced type of play?

cooperative

47

By what age do Pervasive Developmental Disorders develop per diagnostic criteria?

3 years

48

How is a PDD diagnosis established?

Per DSM-IV-TR

6 behaviors from 3 categories (motor, language, communication and social)