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Flashcards in Adult - Cardiology II Deck (37):
1

What is "normal" blood pressure?

< 120
< 80

2

Prehypertension starts at

120
80

3

Stage 1 HTN starts at

140
90

4

Stage 2 HTN starts at

160
100

5

Which type of HTN represents 95% of cases?

primary - idiopathic cause

6

What is the leading cause of secondary HTN?

**renal artery stenosis**

others -
pregnancy
endocrine
renal failure

7

What are exacerbating factors for HTN? (4)

smoking
obesity
excessive alcohol
NSAIDs

8

What is the typical headache of severe HTN?

suboccipital
pulsating
worse in the morning, resolving thru the day

9

HTN goes with which heart sound?

S4

related to LVH

10

Workup for new HTN includes - hugemonguous list because determining if primary or secondary HTN -

renovascular diease studies
CXR - r/o cardiomegaly
aldosterone - r/o aldosteronism
cortisol - r/o cushing
UA
CBC
BMP
ECG

11

BP should be treated no later than which stage?

stage 1

140
90

12

First step in HTN management (non-pharm)

lifestyle changes

13

Which antihypertensive class works particularly well in those with migraine and angina?

beta blockers (-lol)

14

"If you don't know what you are doing and its not a diabetic" which antihypertensive class is a good choice?

beta blockers (-lol)

15

What is the best antihypertensive class to use with a diabetic?

ACE inhibitors (-pril)

16

Which antihypertensive class is not usually used as monotherapy and is effective for prinzmetal's angina?

CCB (-dipine)

17

Which antihypertensive class may cause a cough?

ACE inhibitors (-pril)

if so, switch to ARB

18

Which antihypertensive class may cause a wheeze?

beta blockers (-lol)

19

Which antihypertensive class may cause erectile dysfunction?

beta blockers (-lol)

20

Which antihypertensive class may cause angioedema?

ARB (-sartan)

21

What BP is considered to be a HTN urgency? Time frame for treatment?

180
110

hours to days

22

What is the treatment for HTN urgency?

oral therapy

clonidine (Catapres)
captopril (Capoten)
nifedipine (Procardia)
loop diuretics

23

What BP is considered to be a HTN emergency? Time frame for treatment?

diastolic BP > 130

treat within 1 hour to prevent target organ damage

24

What is the treatment for a hypertensive emergency?

sodium nitroprusside (Niapride) drip

25

What fundoscopic changes are associated with malignant hypertension?

flame shaped retinal hemorrhages
papilledema

26

What is papilledema?

swelling of the optic disk with blurred margins

27

What is a common complaint with dissecting aortic aneurysm?

back pain

eventually the BPs in each arm will be different

28

What is the most common type of angina?

stable angina
exertional

29

What is unstable angina?

tends to be pre-infarction
can happen at rest

30

Which angina is related to vasospasm?

Prinzmetal's angina

31

What medication class treats Prinzmetal's angina?

CCB

32

What *sign* is often present in angina?

Levine's sign - clenched fist on chest

33

What is the expected ECG change in angina?

DOWNsloping of ST segment

this indicates ISCHEMIA

34

What is the expected ECG change in MI?

PEAKED T waves and ST ELEVATION

35

What are the 3 most common meds for angina?

nitrates
beta blockers
calcium channel blockers

36

What is the progression of meds for hypercholesterolemia?

Statin
Niacin added
Fibrates

37

What is a side effect of niacin?

facial flushing