Adult - Eyes Flashcards Preview

NP > Adult - Eyes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Adult - Eyes Deck (39):
1

How close should the ophthalmascope be

to the patient's eye? 

start 12 inches away

and then move to within 1 - 2 inches

2

At what setting should the wheel of the ophthalmascope be to begin with?

zero

3

What is the sequence for fundoscopic examination?

  1. obtain red reflex
  2. proceed from optic disc
  3. end with fovea centralis in the macula 

(moving laterally/temporally)

4

donut-like with orange-pink neuro-retinal rim and central white depression (physiologic cup)

optic disc

from whence the arteries enter the retina

5

what is the expected cup to disc ratio?

Cup should be not more than

1/2 the size of the disc diameter

 

differential if it is greater?

glaucoma

6

Which are larger in the retina  - the arteries or the veins?

The veins are larger than the arteries

A:V ratio is 2:3 to 4:5

7

Where is the macula located in comparison to the optic disc?

2 to 2.5 disc diameters temporally

8

What is AV nicking?

significance?

a raised area at the intersection between and artery and vein on the retina

indicative of hypertension

9

2.5 mm-diameter reflective area, which is slightly darker

and lies in the center of the macular region

fovea centralis

area of most acute vision

10

Where should the patient be directed to look if the macula is difficult to visualize?

Directly into the light of the ophthalmascope

11

How is the snellen chart interpreted?

numerator is the patient 

denominator is normal person

20/30 = the patient can see at 20 feet what the normal person can see at 30 feet

12

Based on Snellen assessment, at what point should the adult patient be referred?

20/30

13

define hyperopia

farsighted

14

define myopia 

nearsighted

15

define presbyopia

difficulty maintaining clear focus at near distance

 

typical age?  often begins near age 40

 

physiology?  

lens less flexible 

ciliary muscles weaker 

16

Is arcus senilis permanent?

yes

it will not resolve even when lipid profile is improved

17

define pterygium

raised, wedge shaped growth on the conjuctiva

often in dry climates

18

define blepharitis

staph or seborrhea of lid edge

19

typical description of blepharitis

red, scaly, greasy flakes at lid margin

20

treatment for blepharitis

scrub lids and lashes 

21

What is the most common eye disorder?

conjunctivitis

22

Antibiotic treatment for bacterial conjuctivitis in the adult

  • fluoroquinolone → -floxicin
    • levofloxicin
    • ofloxicin
    • ciprofloxicin
  • macrolide → -mycin
    • tobramycin
    • gentamycin

23

Treatment for gonococcal conjunctivitis in the adult

ceftriaxone IM

(same as for genital)

24

Treatment for chlamydial conjunctivitis

macrolide → -mycin

 

25

Which type of glacoma is acute?

closed angle

26

which type of glaucoma is chronic?

open angle

27

open-angle glaucoma may be asymptomatic 

what are two signs and symptoms that may be present when symptomatic

 

 

cupping of the disc

constriction of visual fields

28

Closed angle glaucoma (acute)

4 signs and symptoms

extreme pain

blurred vision

halos around lights

pupils dilated or fixed

 

29

Diagnotic test for glaucoma

tonometry

30

Open angle glaucoma - 

acute or chronic

treatment

chronic

Treatment:

  • alpha 2 agonists
  • beta blockers 
  • miotic agents 

31

Closed angle glaucoma

acute or chronic?

treatment?

Acute

  • carbonic anhydrase inibitor
  • osmotic diuretic
  • surgery 

32

What is the most common cause of treatable blindness?

cataracts

33

What effect do cataracts often have on colors?

yellowing

34

Do cataracts tend to produce halos around lights?

 

Yes

what other eye condition does also?

closed angle (acute) glaucoma but cataracts are not painful and closed angle glaucoma is quite painful

35

Does a patient with cataracts have a red reflex?

no

36

Can diplopia occur due to cataracts?

yes - diplopia in one eye can occur with cataracts

and so can sensitivity to light

37

What is the leading risk factor for cataracts?

aging

38

What eye condition has flashes of light (photopsia) as a unique feature?

retinal detachment

39

In addition to flashes of light, what three other symptoms does retinal detachment feature?

floaters

blurred vision

shadow or blindness in field of vision in one eye