Canine Infectious Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Canine Infectious Disease Deck (264)
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1
Q

what does infection with parvovirus cause?

A

severe haemorrhagic vomiting and/or diarrhoea with leukopenia

2
Q

what is a major cause of haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs?

A

canine parvovirus (CPV2)

3
Q

how is canine parvovirus (CPV2) spread?

A

highly effective faeco-oral spread
large amounts shed in diarrhoea
low infective dose

4
Q

what makes canine parvovirus (CPV2) so highly transmissible?

A

large amounts shed in diarrhoea
low infective dose
virus is resistant and remains infective for up to 1 year

5
Q

what is canine parvovirus (CPV2) inactivated by?

A

formalin and hypochlorite disinfectants

6
Q

is canine parvovirus (CPV2) vaccine part of the CORE protocol?

A

yes

7
Q

what tissue is targeted by canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

rapidly dividing tissue e.g. neonatal myocardium, intestinal crypts and bone marrow

8
Q

what rapidly dividing tissues are targeted by canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

neonatal myocardium
intestinal crypt
bone marrow

9
Q

how does canine parvovirus (CPV2) cause haemorrhagic diarrhoea and vomiting?

A

attacks crypts which produce new enterocytes, no more are produced leaving villi bald and leads to ulceration and leaking blood from GI wall

10
Q

what is the signalment for canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A
inadequately protected puppy - 3-6 months old
concurrent infections (e.g. Campylobacter spp)
unvaccinated adult (less common)
11
Q

does the severity of canine parvovirus (CPV2) infection vary?

A

yes

12
Q

what are the clinical signs of canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A
hemorrhagic diarrhoea (+/- vomiting)
anorexia
depression
abdominal pain
neutropenia
13
Q

what causes haemorrhagic diarrhoea in canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

intestinal crypt necrosis

14
Q

what causes neutropenia in canine parvovirus (CPV2) cases?

A

bone marrow necrosis

15
Q

what are canine parvovirus (CPV2) patients at extreme risk of?

A

sepsis

16
Q

why are canine parvovirus (CPV2) at extreme risk of sepsis?

A

due to ulcerated GI tract which will allow intestinal bacteria into blood stream and neutropenia which reduces host defences

17
Q

what are the signs of sepsis?

A

pyrexia
cardiovascular compromise
possibly death

18
Q

what may lead to suspicion of canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

presentation and history

19
Q

what animals should be tested for canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

every puppy with SI haemorrhagic diarrhoea and/or neutropenia

20
Q

what signs may be seen in an animal with canine parvovirus (CPV2) due to GI blood loss?

A

anaemia and hypoproteinaemia

electrolyte imbalances

21
Q

what test may be used to diagnose canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

faecal parvovirus antigen ELISA

22
Q

if the patient with suspected canine parvovirus (CPV2) tests negative but you remain suspicious what should you do?

A

repeat test

23
Q

when may a false + for canine parvovirus (CPV2) on an ELISA be gained?

A

4-8 days post live vaccine

24
Q

how is canine parvovirus (CPV2) treated?

A

aggressive IVFT

naso-oesophageal tube trickle feeding once vomiting is under control

25
Q

what route of administration may be required for IVFT for a patient with canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

IO

26
Q

what route of administration is not appropriate for IVFT for a patient with canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

SQ

27
Q

what electrolytes should be monitored in the patient with canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

K+ and glucose

28
Q

why does glucose need to be monitored in a puppy with canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

reduction in glycogen stores due to small liver and possibility of not eating for a number of hours

29
Q

what is early feeding of canine parvovirus (CPV2) patients linked to?

A

faster recovery

lower mortality

30
Q

what drugs may be given to canine parvovirus (CPV2) patients?

A

anti-emetic (Mariopitant)

antiobiotics

31
Q

why may antibiotics be given to canine parvovirus (CPV2) patients?

A

risk of bacteria from GI tract entering the blood stream

32
Q

when may antibiotics be given to canine parvovirus (CPV2) patients?

A

if severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea and / or neutropenic

33
Q

what antibiotic will be given to canine parvovirus (CPV2) patients?

A

Amoxicillin clavulanate (IV)

34
Q

what treatment for canine parvovirus (CPV2) is not commonly used?

A

feline interferon

35
Q

what are the key elements of nursing care for canine parvovirus (CPV2) patients?

A
ensure comfortable
ensure warm
ensure euhydrated and euvolaemic
early nutrition is essential
dedicated nurse or nurse last
36
Q

how can canine parvovirus (CPV2) patients be made comfortable?

A

reduce risk of scald:
keep bottom clean and dry
keep face/jaw clean and dry
apply barrier cream

37
Q

what conditions of the canine parvovirus (CPV2) patient must be reported straight away?

A

pyrexia or hypothermia

38
Q

what is essential to canine parvovirus (CPV2) recovery?

A

early eating - time, patience and company required

39
Q

what sort of nursing is required for canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

barrier nursing

40
Q

what does recovery from canine parvovirus (CPV2) infection lead to?

A

lifelong protection

41
Q

what does the prognosis of canine parvovirus (CPV2) patients depend on?

A

multiple patient factors (e.g. viral load, immunity, patient health)
provision of supportive care

42
Q

how much may fatality from canine parvovirus (CPV2) with low level care?

A

> 50%

43
Q

what is feline parvovirus known as?

A

feline panleukopenia

feline infectious enteritus

44
Q

how can cats be protected from feline parvovirus?

A

CORE modified live vaccine

45
Q

how is feline parvovirus similar to canine parvovirus (CPV2)?

A

same clinical syndrome

46
Q

what can natural infection or live vaccination of the queen during pregnancy lead to in kittens?

A

cerebellar hypoplasia (ataxia when born)

47
Q

where are leptospiral organisms found?

A

ubiquitous globally

48
Q

what can leptospiral organisms cause?

A

systemic infection of many mammals

49
Q

how do cats respond to leptospiral diseases?

A

relatively resistant

50
Q

what are leptospira species divided into?

A

serogroups

51
Q

what are leptospira serogroups divided into?

A

serovars

52
Q

where are some leptospira serovars found?

A

saprophytic so found on dead or dying matter

53
Q

how many leptospira serovars are recognised?

A

> 250

54
Q

how many leptospira serovars are associated with canine disease?

A

at least 10

55
Q

what are leptospiral serovars adapted to?

A

host (single or multiple)

56
Q

how do leptospires contaminate the environment?

A

infected urine

57
Q

can Leptospires replicate outside the host?

A

no

58
Q

what inactivates Leptospires?

A

exposure to heat/frosts

UV irradiation

59
Q

where do leptospires survive well?

A

in warm / wet conditions for weeks to months

60
Q

what are the risk factors for Leptospirosis?

A

lifestyle reflecting environmental exposure

e.g. working dogs, swimming, often muddy

61
Q

how does Leptospirosis infection occur?

A

via contaminated urine (including fomites) contacting MM or compromised skin

62
Q

where do Leptospires replicate?

A

within the blood stream (leptospiraemia)

63
Q

how do leptospires come to be shed in urine?

A

cause renal infection and are then shed in urine (leptospiruria)

64
Q

what is the incubation period for Leptospirosis?

A

approx. 1 week

65
Q

what is the incubation period of Leptospirosis determined by?

A

serovar pathogenicity, infecting dose and the host response

66
Q

what is the typical presentation of Leptospirosis?

A

acute

67
Q

what is the clinical presentation of Leptospirosis?

A

hepatic injury (+/- jaundice)
renal injury (+/- failure)
acute pulmonary haemorrhage
Vasculitis

68
Q

what are the main non-specific signs of hepatic and renal injury?

A

lethargy
inappetance
vomiting
diarrhoea

69
Q

what are the key signs of Leptospirosis?

A

pyrexia
lethargy
inappetance
signs relating to affected organ systems

70
Q

what are the common examination findings of an animal with leptospirosis?

A
lethargic
dull
frequently pyrexic
\+/- jaundice
\+/- petechial haemorrhages
mild generalised lymphadenomegally
71
Q

why are petechial haemorrhages often seen in Leptospirosis patients?

A

due to poor platelet function

72
Q

what are the common laboratory findings in patients with leptospirosis?

A

thrombocytopenia
hepatic injury +/- jaundice
renal injury - azotemia - due to AKI

73
Q

what is the urine output of a patient with Leptospirosis likely to be like?

A

anuria or polyuria possible due to AKI

74
Q

how should urine output be monitored in a patient with Leptospirosis?

A

roughly monitor by eye as there should be no direct contact due to zoonotic risk

75
Q

how is Leptospirosis diagnosed?

A

demonstration of serologic conversion

organism identification before antibiotic therapy

76
Q

what test is commonly used to identify Leptospirosis organism to diagnose?

A

PCR

77
Q

when should treatment for Leptospirosis begin?

A

if suspicious should start before results of test become available (can take up to a week)

78
Q

what drug is used to treat Leptospirosis?

A

Doxycycline

79
Q

how long is the course of Doxycycline needed to treat Leptospirosis?

A

2 weeks

80
Q

who else may need to be treated with Doxycycline if a dog has Leptospirosis?

A

contacts

81
Q

what is a risk associated with Doxycycline?

A

oesophageal stricture if drug remains in oesophagus for any length of time

82
Q

what drug is often used to treat Leptospirosis before the dog is able to eat?

A

amoxicillin clavulanate (IV) pending clinical improvement

83
Q

what supportive treatment will be offered when treating Leptospirosis?

A

for any affected organs

84
Q

how many Leptospirosis patients make a full recovery?

A

> 50%

85
Q

if the animal doesn’t make a full clinical recovery from Leptospirosis what are the other outcomes?

A

chronic disease due to permanently damaged organs

fatal

86
Q

how should Leptospirosis cases be nursed?

A

barrier nursing

87
Q

what disinfectants must be used when cleaning after / around a Leptospirosis case?

A

chlorine or phenol based

88
Q

what must you ensure happens to the cage of an animal with Leptospirosis while they are in?

A

adequate signage to ensure people are aware of zoonotic potential

89
Q

where should Leptospirosis cases be allowed to urinate?

A

designated area to avoid any other dogs coming into contact

90
Q

what are the considerations that must be made regarding phlebotomy in Leptospirosis patients?

A

they have low platelets so samples should only be taken from peripheral veins where adequate pressure can be placed

91
Q

what must humans treating Leptospirosis cases avoid contact with?

A

bodily fluid of the affected animal, especially urine and blood

92
Q

what is the name of Leptospirosis caused disease in humans?

A

Weil’s disease

93
Q

what are the typical symptoms of Weil’s disease in humans?

A

typically mild and flu like

94
Q

what are the less typical signs of Weil’s disease in humans?

A

severe multisystemic life threatening illness (+/- abortions)

95
Q

why must pregnant women not handle Leptospirosis cases?

A

as Weil’s disease can lead to abortion

96
Q

what type of virus is Distemper?

A

enveloped RNA virus

97
Q

what family is canine distemper virus part of?

A

paramyxoviridae

98
Q

how long can canine distemper virus survive in the environment?

A

less than 1 day

99
Q

how is canine distemper virus inactivated?

A

heat, drying and disinfectants

100
Q

why is canine distemper virus rare in the UK?

A

due to vaccination

101
Q

where is the main risk of canine distemper virus infection found?

A

within high concentrations of unvaccinated dogs (e.g. puppy farms)

102
Q

how is canine distemper virus transmitted?

A

oronasal secretions through direct contact or large particle aerosol

103
Q

where does canine distemper virus replicate within the body?

A

tonsils / lymphoid tissue of upper respiratory tract

104
Q

how does canine distemper virus disseminate to entire reticuloendothelial system?

A

enters monocytes and uses them to move round the body

105
Q

where is canine distemper virus shed from?

A

all body secretions / excretions

106
Q

when is canine distemper virus shed?

A

before clinical signs

107
Q

where does canine distemper virus tend to localise?

A

epithelial tissue

108
Q

where in the body does canine distemper virus often affect?

A
respiratory 
GI
CNS
urinary
skin 
RBC/WBC
109
Q

why does the acute presentation of canine distemper virus vary?

A

due to host health/immunity, pathogenicity of strain, dose received etc

110
Q

how may canine distemper virus present?

A

sub-clinical to rapidly progressive and fatal

111
Q

what are the main signs of canine distemper virus?

A
pyrexia 
lethargy
respiratory signs
GI
\+/- neurological
secondary infection common
112
Q

do canine distemper virus patients show all signs?

A

no

113
Q

what are the main respiratory signs of canine distemper virus?

A

cough
naso-ocular discharge
+/- pneumonia

114
Q

what are the main GI signs of canine distemper virus?

A

vomiting

diarrhoea

115
Q

can patients recover from acute presentation of canine distemper virus?

A

yes

116
Q

what is the main chronic manifestation of canine distemper virus?

A

CNS signs

117
Q

what are the main CNS signs of chronic canine distemper virus?

A

seizures
ataxia
myoclonus (twitching)

118
Q

in how many canine distemper virus dogs are CNS signs seen?

A

30%

119
Q

what are the other chronic canine distemper virus signs aside from CNS?

A

occular signs
dental
dermatological

120
Q

what are the ocular signs of canine distemper virus?

A

various inflammatory manifestations +/- blindness

121
Q

what are the dental signs of chronic canine distemper virus?

A

enamel and dentine hypoplasia

122
Q

what are the dermatological signs of canine distemper virus?

A

foot pad and nasal planum hyperkeratosis

123
Q

are there any specific laboratory screening signs associated with canine distemper virus?

A

none specific - lymphopenia is common

124
Q

how is canine distemper virus diagnosed?

A

identification of the organism using swabs and samples

125
Q

what techniques are used to diagnose canine distemper virus?

A

cytology
antigen / ELISA assays
PCR
post mortem histopathology

126
Q

what are you looking for in cytology to diagnose canine distemper virus?

A

viral inclusions in leukocytes, conjunctival cells, fluid samples etc

127
Q

what nursing is required for canine distemper virus?

A

barrier and isolation

128
Q

is there a direct treatment available for canine distemper virus?

A

no anti viral currently available

129
Q

what must be managed when treating canine distemper virus?

A

secondary infections

130
Q

what could the role of vitamin A be in treatment of canine distemper virus?

A

has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in ferrets when given before infection

131
Q

what are surviving, apparently recovered canine distemper virus dogs at risk of?

A

future CNS signs

132
Q

when may a dog with canine distemper virus be euthanised?

A

if CNS signs become progressively worse leading to poor QOL

133
Q

what does recovery from canine distemper virus infection lead to?

A

life long immunity

134
Q

what does immunity to canine distemper virus require?

A

antibodies

cell mediated immunity

135
Q

what does canine adenovirus 1 (CAV-1) lead to?

A

infectious canine hepatitis

136
Q

what does CAV-2 lead to?

A

mild respiratory disease

137
Q

what disease complex is CAV-2 part of?

A

Kennel cough complex

138
Q

what are dogs vaccinated against to prevent CAV-1?

A

CAV-2

139
Q

why does vaccination against CAV-2 protect against CAV-1?

A

due to the antigenic similarities between CAV-1 and 2

140
Q

what did vaccination using CAV-1 lead to in some dogs?

A

glomerulopathy and corneal oedema (blue eye)

141
Q

is CAV-2 vaccine part of the CORE vaccine?

A

yes

142
Q

how long can CAV-1 survive at room temperature?

A

for months

143
Q

what is CAV-1 inactivated by?

A

disinfectants

144
Q

what dogs are typically affected by CAV-1?

A

juvenile or unvaccinated

145
Q

is CAV-1 common in the UK?

A

no

146
Q

why may prevalence of CAV-1 increase in the UK?

A

puppy trading and imports

147
Q

in what other species does CAV-1 cause disease?

A

other dog like species (not ferrets)

148
Q

how is CAV-1 shed?

A

in saliva, urine and faeces

149
Q

how long is CAV-1 shed for?

A

months following infection

150
Q

how is CAV-1 transmitted?

A

direct dog to dog contact or via fomites

151
Q

where does CAV-1 enter the body?

A

oro-nasopharynx / conjunctiva

152
Q

where does CAV-1 replicate?

A

tonsils

153
Q

where does CAV-1 spread to?

A

Lymph nodes and blood stream through lymphatic system

154
Q

what are the main target cells of CAV-1?

A

hepatocytes and endothelial cells

155
Q

what is seen in the nucleus of CAV-1 affected cells?

A

intra-nuclear inclusion bodies

156
Q

what causes widespread tissue damage in CAV-1 infection?

A

cell injury and lysis due to replication of CAV-1 in host cell nucleus

157
Q

how long is CAV-1 incubated for before clinical signs are seen?

A

4-9 days

158
Q

what level of CAV-1 disease will be seen in dogs with immunological competence?

A

mild or subclinical disease

159
Q

what are the 3 reported clinical disease syndromes of CAV-1?

A

per-acute
acute
sub acute to chronic

160
Q

how fast is the onset of per acute CAV-1 infection?

A

sudden

161
Q

describe per acute CAV-1 infection

A

circulatory collapse and death in 1-2 days

162
Q

when will sub acute to chronic CAV-1 infection occur?

A

if partially immune

163
Q

what happens during sub acute to chronic CAV-1 infection?

A

progression of disease to hepatic failure and death

164
Q

what is the most common clinical CAV-1 disease syndrome?

A

acute

165
Q

what is the mortality of acute CAV-1 infection?

A

up to 30%

166
Q

describe acute CAV-1 infection

A

severe disease lasting 1-2 weeks

167
Q

what are the clinical signs of CAV-1?

A
hepatic injury
petechial / ecchymotic haemorrhages 
\+/- GI haemorrhage
conjunctivitis 
pyrexia
lethargy
inappetance
vomiting
diarrhoea
tachypnoea
\+/- glomerular / tubular damage
168
Q

when will further injury cease in CAV-1 cases?

A

when there is a robust immune response (~7 days)

169
Q

what haematology findings are often seen with CAV-1?

A

leukopenia
neutropenia
+/- pancytopenia

170
Q

what will biochemistry results for CAV-1 diagnosis reflect?

A

hepatocellular injury and dysfunction

frequent coagulopathies

171
Q

what will serum results show in CAV-1 patients if they survive acute illness?

A

rising antibodies - if they survive

172
Q

how is CAV-1 identified in samples from the patient?

A

PCR

173
Q

what samples are used to perform PCR for CAV-1 diagnosis?

A

nasal/occular/rectal swabs
body fluids
tissues

174
Q

what type of nursing is required for CAV-1 patients?

A

isolation and barrier

175
Q

what supportive therapies will be needed for CAV-1 patients?

A
fluids
nutrition
nausea? - anti emetic
encephalopathic
pain
specific ophthalmic care (if signs present)
176
Q

why may CAV-1 patients be encephalopathic?

A

accumulation of toxins in the brain due to liver compromise

177
Q

what can be seen in survivors of CAV-1?

A

chronic hepatitis and glomerulonephritis

178
Q

what does recovery from natural infection with CAV-1 provide?

A

life long immunity

179
Q

what does canine herpes virus cause latent infection of?

A

neural ganglia

180
Q

when can canine herpes virus reactivate?

A

at times of stress

181
Q

what is the typical transmission method of canine herpes virus in adults?

A

venereal

182
Q

what does canine herpes virus infection present like in adults?

A

subclinical upper respiratory tract disease and genital disease

183
Q

why is canine herpes virus disease usually only seen in puppies?

A

replicates at <37 degrees which is cooler than adult body temperature

184
Q

what is canine herpes virus known as?

A

fading puppy syndrome

185
Q

what can exposure of a naive pregnant bitch to CAV-1 in the last trimester lead to?

A

abortion / neonatal death in up to 100% of litter

186
Q

what 3 pathogens are part of the kennel cough complex?

A

Bordetella bronchiseptica
Canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV)
canine adenovirus 2 (CAV-2)

187
Q

what is kennel cough known as?

A

canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) or infectious tracheobronchitis

188
Q

what signs does canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) lead to?

A

acute and self limiting harsh and hacking cough

189
Q

what technique is sometimes used to test for canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC)?

A

tracheal pinch

190
Q

what are the limitations of tracheal pinch to diagnose canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC)?

A

non-specific

cough can often be triggered by this method in a healthy animal

191
Q

what are the less common signs associated with canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC)?

A

concurrent oculo-nasal signs

progression to pneumonia

192
Q

what are the risk factors for canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC)?

A

high density of dogs in an environment

previous exposure

193
Q

how is canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) transmitted?

A

aerosol - direct and fomite

194
Q

what should be considered if owner phones to book an appointment for a coughing dog?

A

possibility of kennel cough (canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC))

195
Q

what should owners of a coughing dog be advised to do before they visit the vet?

A

wait in the car

avoid socialising with other dogs

196
Q

how should a non-pyrexic, otherwise healthy dog with kennel cough be managed?

A

given time (1-2 weeks)
+/- NSAIDs
+/- cough suppressants if cough non-productive

197
Q

how should a pyrexic dog with kennel cough and lower respiratory or systemic signs be managed?

A

doxycycline
radiography if LRT signs
consider other infectious diseases / diagnostics if systemic

198
Q

what bacteria can all be isolated from healthy dog faeces?

A

e. coli
Clostridium perfringens
campylobacter spp.
salmonella spp.

199
Q

what is the zoonotic potential of alot of bacteria that are found in dog faeces?

A

zoonotic and reverse zoonotic

200
Q

what is the challenge when trying to demonstrate bacteria are the cause of patient illness?

A

as these bacteria can be found in healthy animals it is hard to know the significance of findings and proving they are the cause

201
Q

when should you only look for bacteria in faecal samples?

A

if you genuinely think they are causing the problem

202
Q

what animals are at risk of bacterial enterocolitis?

A

raw fed
cats who hunt birds
young
crowded / unsanitary environment

203
Q

when may investigation into bacterial enterocolitis be begun sooner?

A

if owner is immunocompromised

204
Q

what are the clinical signs of bacterial enterocolitis?

A
haemorrhagic vomiting or diarrhoea
pyrexia
sepsis
\+/- abdominal pain
enterotoxaemia is possible with some
205
Q

what should be considered in cases exhibiting clinical signs of bacterial enterocolitis?

A

faecal culture

ensure evaluation for parvovirus

206
Q

where is campylobacter spp. found?

A

present in faeces of around 50% of healthy dogs and cats - especially young/kennelled

207
Q

what can campylobacter spp. lead to?

A

ulcerative colitis due to attachment and invasion of GI wall

208
Q

what should be done if a faecal culture is positive for campylobacter spp.?

A

speciate with PCR

209
Q

what 3 campylobacter species are there?

A

C. jejuni
C. coli
C. upsaliensis

210
Q

what is campylobacter jejuni related to?

A

disease in dogs specifically with concurrent viral infections

211
Q

what is campylobacter coli related to?

A

disease in cats

212
Q

what is campylobacter upsaliensis related to?

A

likely a canine commensal

213
Q

what is the first line of treatment for a pathogenic campylobacter species infection?

A

off licence erythromycin

214
Q

in what numbers of cats and dogs is subclinical carriage of salmonella spp. common?

A

30% of dogs

18% of cats

215
Q

what clinical signs of salmonella spp. infection are not always seen in cats?

A

GI signs

216
Q

what are the main signs of salmonella spp. infection?

A

pyrexia
leukocytosis
GI signs

217
Q

how is salmonella spp. infection diagnosed?

A

faecal culture and/ or blood culture and PCR

218
Q

when should salmonella spp. infection be treated?

A

only if patient is systemically unwell

219
Q

what can antibiotics do if given during salmonella spp. infection?

A

may encourage carrier status

220
Q

what antibiotics are least likely to cause salmonella spp. carrier state?

A

fluoroquinolones

221
Q

how long does antibiotic treatment for salmonella spp. last if needed?

A

10 days and then re-culture (prolonged courses may be needed)

222
Q

what should be aimed for to confirm salmonella spp. infection elimination?

A

serial negative faecal cultures post treatment

223
Q

what forms may escherichia coli take?

A

various pathogenic types

may be commensal

224
Q

what can be caused by escherichia coli?

A

acute or chronic diarrhoea

225
Q

what is escherichia coli infection often seen alongside?

A

other pathogens (e.g. parvovirus)

226
Q

what is the specific chronic presentation of escherichia coli?

A

granulomatous colitis

227
Q

how is escherichia coli infection diagnosed?

A

positive faecal culture

228
Q

what can a faecal culture containing escherichia coli be evaluated for?

A

pathogenicity genes - still doesn’t prove causality

229
Q

how is escherichia coli infection treated?

A

antimicrobials

vaccination, oral immunoglobulins - not proven

230
Q

how many healthy animals is clostridium perfringens found in?

A

> 80% of healthy dogs

231
Q

what is clostridium perfringens subtyped based on?

A

various toxins

232
Q

what toxin is the main pathogenic toxin of clostridium perfringens?

A

clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE)

233
Q

does identification of clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) imply causality?

A

no

234
Q

what is clostridium perfringens netF toxin associated with?

A

canine acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS)

235
Q

how is clostridium perfringens diagnosed ideally?

A

ELISA for CPE in faeces

PCR of CPE gene

236
Q

in reality how is clostridium perfringens diagnosed?

A

faecal culture which has hige limitations

237
Q

what signs are seen with clostridium perfringens?

A

LI diarrhoea (SI or mixed also common)

238
Q

should systemically well dogs with diarrhoea be treated?

A

no

239
Q

when will dogs with clostridium perfringens be treated?

A

if systemically ill

240
Q

what are the signs of a dog who is systemically ill with clostridium perfringens?

A

haemorrhagic gastroenteritis
pyrexia
inflammatory leukogram

241
Q

what treatment will be given to systemically unwell clostridium perfringens patients?

A

antibiotics

242
Q

what was acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome previously called?

A

haemorrhagic gastroenteritis

243
Q

what is acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome a syndrome of?

A

acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea (+/- vomiting) and marked haemoconcentration

244
Q

what bacterial toxin is involved in acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome pathogenesis?

A

C. perfringens netF

245
Q

what is the effect of C. perfringens netF toxin?

A

pore created in enterocytes leading to massive water loss into the intestine (dehydration and hypovolaemia)

246
Q

what dogs are most commonly affected by acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome?

A

small breed dogs of any age

247
Q

what is the clinical presentation of a dog with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome?

A
acute onset
haemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhoea
abdominal pain
obtunded
hypovolaemic shock (due to extreme fluid loss in gut lumen)
marked haemoconcentration (elevated PCV)
248
Q

how is acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome diagnosed?

A

consistent clinical signs

marked (>60%) increase in PCV without commensurate increase in TP

249
Q

what other causes of signs should be excluded before diagnosing acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome?

A
acute dietary indiscretion / intoxication
pancreatitis
hypoadrenocorticism
parvovirus
other bacterial enteritides
intussusception (especially if young)
250
Q

how is acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome treated?

A

IVFT with boluses to correct hypovolaemia and CRI to counteract ongoing losses
antibiotics when indicated

251
Q

when are antibiotics not indicated for acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome treatment?

A

if apart from hypovolaemia the animal is systemically well (no pyrexia or signs of sepsis)

252
Q

what antibiotic will be given to acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome patients when indicated?

A

amoxicillin clavulanate

253
Q

what animals carry clostridium difficile asymptomatically?

A

small proportion

254
Q

what is clostridium difficile disease likely secondary to?

A

toxin production

255
Q

what is clostridium difficile infection seen as a complication of in people?

A

antimicrobial therapy

256
Q

is there evidence of similar pathogensis of clostridium difficile infection due to antimicrobial therapy in dogs and cats?

A

no

257
Q

how is clostridium difficile infection diagnosed?

A

faecal culture and / or common antigen test

ELISA or toxins

258
Q

what clostridium difficile toxins are tested for on an ELISA?

A

TcdA and TcdB

259
Q

how is clostridium difficile treated?

A

antibiotics (metronidazole) when indicated (systemically unwell)

260
Q

when should antibiotic treatment stop if related to clostridium difficile infection?

A

immediately

261
Q

when should a bacterial pathogen be considered?

A

acute haemorrhagic vomiting and/or diarrhoea with signs of:
pyrexia
sepsis
inflammatory leukogram

262
Q

if bacterial pathogen is not indicated by signs what should you do?

A

avoid looking as it will be very difficult to tell significance when carriage in normal animals is so common

263
Q

how should bacterial enterocolitis patients be nursed?

A

barrier

264
Q

what should you pay careful attention to when monitoring bacterial enterocolitis patients?

A
fluid balance (euvolaemia, euhydration)
severity of haemorrhagic component
abdominal pain
nausea
appetite
changes in body temperature

Decks in X Clinical Veterinary Nursing Theory Class (70):