Equine Imaging Flashcards Preview

X Clinical Veterinary Nursing Theory > Equine Imaging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Equine Imaging Deck (44)
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1
Q

what are the special considerations that must be made during equine imaging?

A

physical safety

radiation safety

2
Q

what are the risks associated with physical safety during equine imaging?

A

damage to personnel, equipment and the horse itself

3
Q

why is the risk of injury higher with equine imaging?

A

radiographs usually performed with the horse conscious and standing

4
Q

how should physical safety be ensured during equine imaging?

A

sedate unless horse is very sensible
ensure sedation is deep enough to create compliance but not so deep the animal cannot stand up
carry out procedure quickly and quietly

5
Q

what should be avoided when performing equine imaging?

A

loud noises or sudden movements

touching the horse with x ray equipment or cassettes/holders

6
Q

what must you always be ready to do when imaging horses?

A

be ready to move x-ray equipment out of the way if the horse moves or kicks

7
Q

why does equine radiation create bigger radiation concerns than smaller animals?

A

people in room with animal
large exposure values due to thicker tissues
large amount of scattered radiation

8
Q

how can exposure risk during equine radiography be reduced?

A

minimise number of people around the horse

ensure all involved are wearing protective clothing and dosimeters

9
Q

how many people should be involved in equine radiology?

A

3 - one at head, one holding plate, one radiographer

10
Q

what type of primary beam is often used during equine imaging?

A

horizontal

11
Q

how can radiation safety be ensured when using a horizontal x ray beam?

A

ensure x ray beam is pointing towards a substantial barrier (wall)
ensure no part of a person is in the line of the primary x ray beam

12
Q

what is the benefit of using cassette holders over having staff hold cassettes?

A

keeps personnel away from x ray beam and reduces risk from scatter

13
Q

what must be worn when standing close to the primary beam during equine x ray?

A

PPE - lead apron, thyroid protector and gloves

14
Q

how should the horse be prepared for radiography of the foot?

A

brush off mud
remove shoe (if it will obscure required structure)
pick out hoof
pack frog
mark hoof wall/coronary band/point of frog

15
Q

why may you want to mark hoof wall/coronary band/point of frog when imaging a hoof?

A

reference points (e.g. if looking for dropped coffin bone)

16
Q

how many projections are usually taken for lower limb of the equine?

A

4 minimum

17
Q

how many projections are usually taken for the upper limb of the equine?

A

2

18
Q

what are the 4 main projections of the lower limb?

A

lateromedial
dorsopalmar/plantar
dorsomedialpalmaro/plantarolateral
dorsolateralpalmaro/plantaromedial

19
Q

what are the projections used for full assessment of the equine foot?

A

lateromedial
dorsopalmar/plantar
60 degree dorsoproximal-palmarodistal oblique
45 degree palmarproximal-palmarodistal oblique

20
Q

what is imaged during a 60 degree dorsoproximal-palmarodistal oblique projection of the foot?

A

distal phalanx

navicular bone

21
Q

what is viewed during a 45 degree palmarproximal-palmarodistal oblique projection of the hoof?

A

skyline navicular bone

22
Q

what projections of the fetlock are taken of during imaging?

A

lateromedial
dorsopalmar/plantar
DLPMO
DMPLO

23
Q

how can dorsopalamar/plantar views of the fetlock be made clearer?

A

angle 10 degrees distally to increase separation between joint spaces and sesamoids

24
Q

what projections of the carpus would be taken initially?

A
standard 4 (LM, DP, DLPMO, DMPLO)
flexed
dorsoproximal - dorsaldistal obliques (skyline)
25
Q

what is the purpose of flexed images of the carpus?

A

separates radial and intermediate carpal bones

see more of joint surfaces

26
Q

what is the purpose of dorsoproximal - dorsaldistal obliques (skyline) views of the carpus?

A

shows dorsal surface of each particular bone / row in the carpus

27
Q

what projections of the carpus are usually taken?

A

4 standard usually adequate

28
Q

what additional projections on top of 4 main ones may be taken of the tarsus (hock)?

A

flexed views of calcaneus and sustentaculum tali

29
Q

what are the 2 standard projections of the stifle?

A

lateromedial

caudocranial

30
Q

what should be done during caudocranial projections of the stifle to align with joint?

A

angle 10-15 degrees down

31
Q

can a cassette holder be used during stifle imaging?

A

no - must be held

32
Q

what are the common projections for imaging the elbow and shoulder?

A

mediolateral

craniocaudal both with leg extended

33
Q

what is the most common indication for elbow and shoulder images?

A

history of trauma and suspected fracture

34
Q

why is it so difficult to image above the shoulder/stifle of a horse?

A

positioning difficulties
scatter risk
thickness of tissue

35
Q

how is the thorax imaged in adult horses?

A

jigsaw of 4 images

36
Q

what are the 4 projections used to image the thorax of an adult horse?

A

dorsocranial
dorsocaudal
ventrocranial
ventrocaudal

37
Q

how can the thorax of a foal be imaged?

A

possible to image the entire thorax on one plate

38
Q

how should images of the vertebral column in horse be taken?

A

in small chunks

markers can be used to ensure no area is missed

39
Q

what are the main indications for imaging of the head?

A
sinuses
teeth 
gutteral pouch
trauma assessment
TMJs
40
Q

what are the standard projections used to image the equine head?

A

lateral
DV
oblique

41
Q

what are the issues associated with ultrasound of a horse?

A

lots of hair, thick skin and dirt make contact difficult and so image quality low
big patients - low frequency used so image quality low

42
Q

how should a horse be prepared for ultrasound?

A

clip if possible
scrub (if unable to clip to wet down hair)
spirit applied to reduce grease on skin
contact gel

43
Q

what are the main areas that are scanned by ultrasound in horses?

A

MSK

abdomen

44
Q

what is ultrasound of the equine abdomen usually looking at?

A

colic related - motility, dilation and contents of intestine

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