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Flashcards in Exotic Anaesthesia Deck (115)
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1
Q

how do anaesthetic mortality rates in exotics compare to those in companion animals?

A

much higher risk in exotics

2
Q

what is the issue with history in exotics?

A

often sparse
may have may pre existing conditions which have gone unrecognised
as they are often children’s pets (e.g. hamster) there may be financial constraints

3
Q

what are the key issues associated with anaesthetising exotic species?

A
often small
may have completely different anatomy to companion animals
can be dangerous
handling is stressful for the animal
lack of 'standard' equipment
4
Q

what are the difficulties associated with the often small size of exotic species?

A

accurate weight may be difficult
difficult to examine / auscultate
IV access may be impossible

5
Q

what are the key issues associated with the eyes of many exotic species?

A

often protuberant
risk of damage to occular surface by mask
e.g. corneal desiccation

6
Q

in what animals is the pharyngeal pouch found?

A

guinea pigs

7
Q

what issues are associated with pharyngeal pouches?

A

if pouches have food in this can be pushed into the trachea during intubation

8
Q

what are the difficulties associated with the mouth anatomy of many exotic species?

A

dentition (e.g. large incisors)
narrow jaw
limited gape
extra pharyngeal tissue which may be obstructive

9
Q

what does the mouth anatomy of many exotic species mean for intubation?

A

often difficult

10
Q

what is the metabolic rate of many exotic species like?

A

high

11
Q

what is the oxygen consumption of many exotic species like?

A

high

12
Q

what is the rate of glucose consumption in many exotic species like?

A

high

13
Q

what blood disturbance are many exotic species at risk of due to there high consumption of glucose?

A

hypoglycaemia

14
Q

why are many exotic species at risk of hypothermia?

A

high surface area:volume ratio
high rate of heat loss
many ectothermic

15
Q

what are the key difficulties with the respiratory system of exotic species?

A

may be an obligate nasal breather
many have pre-existing, undetected disease
difficult to detect changes with auscultation

16
Q

what species is an obligate nasal breather?

A

rabbit

17
Q

what are the key difficulties with the cardiovascular system of exotic species?

A

small vessel size

high HR makes for difficult monitoring

18
Q

what are the key difficulties with the GI tract of exotic species?

A

may be carnivores or herbivores and have differing dietary needs

19
Q

what is an issue with rabbit GI tracts?

A

at risk of gut stasis / ilius if they aren’t eating

20
Q

what are the main concerns between exotic species when under veterinary care?

A
disease / problem 
species predisposition
drug concerns (licensing in species)
poor husbandry due to lack of knowledge
lack of familiarity
lack of specialist housing
21
Q

what is a species specific problem found in ferrets?

A

hyperoestrogenism

22
Q

what is a species specific issue in rabbits?

A

liver torsion

23
Q

what are the key special considerations with handling / anaesthetising birds?

A
wide range of species
hide illness well
stressed by restraint
danger to handler
risk of hypothermia and hypoglycaemia
must be weighed accurately
24
Q

how does a bird breathing system differ from mammals?

A

separate conducting and gas exchange areas
have air sacs, parabronchi and unidirectional flow
movement of sternum is essential for breathing

25
Q

why must birds be handled very carefully?

A

require chest to move in order to breathe as they don’t have a diaphragm

26
Q

why should ET tubes in birds not be cuffed?

A

they have complete tracheal rings

27
Q

in what size birds is tracheal intubation possible?

A

> 100g

28
Q

why do muscle relaxants have a profound effect on birds?

A

both inspiration and expiration are active processes

29
Q

where is IV access best found in birds?

A

right jugular usually better than left

can also use wing veins and dorsal metatarsal vein

30
Q

how does birds heart rate compare to mammals?

A

have a large heart and CO so HR is lower

31
Q

what is the metabolic rate of birds like?

A

high

32
Q

should birds be starved pre-op?

A

not unless over 200g and dependent on size and species

33
Q

how can birds be encouraged to eat post op?

A

crop feeding

34
Q

what are the key husbandry considerations of reptiles?

A

humidity (POTZ)
UV
Light
maybe involve owner

35
Q

what is a big handler risk with reptiles?

A

zoonosis (on skin)

36
Q

how do reptiles regulate body temperature?

A

poikilothermic or ectothermic

37
Q

define poikilothermic / ectothermic

A

temperature can fluctuate in a wide range

temperature control is mostly due to the environment

38
Q

what is the effect on anaesthesia of correctly managing ectothermic animals temperature?

A

maximise drug absorption. metabolism and elimination
minimise potential for lactic acidosis
reduce recovery time

39
Q

why is muscle function of anaesthetised reptiles crucial?

A

no muscular diaphragm

40
Q

is the heart within reptiles in a fixed location?

A

no heart and organs can move freely

41
Q

are reptiles able to breath hold?

A

yes

42
Q

when are reptiles larynx open?

A

only during active respiration?

43
Q

describe the reptillian heart

A

3 chambers - 2 atria and 1 ventricle

44
Q

what is the result of blood shunting the wrong way in the reptillian heart?

A

gas mismatching / poor inhalation uptake

45
Q

what makes intubation of reptiles challenging?

A

fleshy tongue and long soft palette

46
Q

how may reptiles loose moisture?

A

via respiratory tract

47
Q

how does reptilian O2 consumption compare to companion animals?

A

lower

48
Q

what is the arrangement of lungs like in many snakes?

A

single functional right lung and not a pair

49
Q

why should cuffed ET tubes be avoided in reptiles?

A

many species have complete tracheal rings

50
Q

what is key to remember about snakes eyes?

A

they don’t have eyelids

51
Q

how is gas movement in and out of the respiratory system produced in chelonians?

A

movement of the limbs

52
Q

do tortoises have a diaphragm?

A

no

53
Q

what will thermoregulation in chelonia affect?

A

drug uptake, absorption and distribution

54
Q

what is the MAP of chelonians?

A

15-30 mmHg

55
Q

how can chelonian respiration be observed?

A

watching movement of limbs

56
Q

should rabbits/rodents be starved pre-op?

A

no

57
Q

should guinea pigs be starved pre-op?

A

0-4hrs prior to ensure pharyngeal pouches are empty

58
Q

should ferrets be starved pre-op?

A

yes, 6 hours

59
Q

should snakes/reptiles be starved pre-op?

A

regurgitation is not usually a problem

avoid feeding live insects prior to GA - potentially avoid feeding day as not fed as often as companion species

60
Q

should birds be starved pre-op?

A

varies between species

61
Q

should tortoises be starved pre-op?

A

avoid live insects before GA

62
Q

what condition do exotic species often present with?

A

anorexia

63
Q

what breathing system will be used for most exotics?

A

T-piece

64
Q

how can drag on the trachea by the breathing system be reduced?

A

weight of breathing system taken by sandbags

65
Q

what is often the only method of induction available for exotics?

A

gas induction - must be justified

66
Q

what is crucial about container sizes for gas induction?

A

appropriate for size of animal to ensure quick induction

67
Q

what must gas chambers have?

A

inlet and outlet for scavenging

68
Q

where will the out port on a gas chamber be placed in relation to the in port?

A

higher as warm waste gases will rise

69
Q

why may gas induction not be applicable to some species?

A

they can breath hold

70
Q

what is the most common airway management method in exotic species?

A

mask

71
Q

what are the advantages of masks for airway management?

A

suitable for all species
clear mask allows observation
easy to use
can provide O2 and VA

72
Q

what are the disadvantages of masks for airway management?

A

personnel safety

no airway protection if animal vomits

73
Q

what are the advantages of ET tubes for airway management?

A

gold standard
accurate gas delivery
better for personnel

74
Q

what are the disadvantages of ET tubes for airway management?

A

not possible in all species
may cause trauma
care with one lung ventilation - ensure correct placement

75
Q

what are the advantages of V-gels (SGA) for airway management?

A

great for rabbits
quick and easy to use
online training available
cost effective

76
Q

what are the diadvantages of V-Gels (SGA) for airway management?

A

not a substitute for intubation
requires multiple sizes
weight dependent
not always easy to keep in place (especially if animal is being moved regularly)
must have capnography to confirm placement

77
Q

why can intubation in birds sometimes be easier?

A

no epiglottis

78
Q

why is pain relief essential in rabbits?

A

must eat - if in pain will stop eating

79
Q

how can rabbits be fed ASAP post operatively?

A

syringe feeding - avoids gut stasis

80
Q

what are the main routes of drug administration in exotic species?

A
IV
IM
IP
SC
IO
inhalation
oral
81
Q

what veins may be used for IV injection in exotics?

A

usual - cephalic and saphenous
basilic vein (wing
medial tarsal
right jugular

82
Q

what muscles may be used for IM injection in exotic species?

A

usual sites

pectoral in birds

83
Q

what bones may IO injections be placed in in exotic species?

A

cranial tibiotarsus

ulna

84
Q

what are exotic species susceptible to following drug admin?

A

abscessation and septicaemia

85
Q

what can be done to reduce abscessation and septicaemia following drug admin in exotic species?

A

aseptic preparation

86
Q

what should be done following SC or IM injection?

A

massage site

87
Q

what is monitoring of exotic anaesthetic reliant on?

A

reflexes

88
Q

what reflexes can be monitored in exotic species?

A

the Righting reflex
withdrawal reflexes
jaw tone

89
Q

what is the Righting reflex?

A

vestibular system will correct orientation of body if it is incorrect (head will follow body - test by placing animal on its back and seeing if it turns over)

90
Q

what pulses should be monitored in exotic species?

A

peripheral if possible - central if not

91
Q

what is essential about any monitoring device used for exotic species?

A

can count up to and over 200BPM

92
Q

where can pulse ox be attached on exotic species?

A

foot or tail base as tongue may be too small

93
Q

what capnography is best for exotic species?

A

mainstream - to stop delay in CO2 readings that is associated with sidestream sampling

94
Q

How can ECG leads be attached?

A

cut pads to size and attach to feet / limbs

needle electrodes

95
Q

where should ECG pads be placed on ferrets/rats?

A

pad of foot

96
Q

where should pads be placed on rabbits?

A

metacarpal / tarsal

97
Q

what are needle electrodes?

A

SC hypodermic needle attached to crocodile clip

98
Q

what type of BP monitoring is most common in exotics?

A

doppler (indirect)

99
Q

what can doppler BP also be used for?

A

apex beat / CO monitoring

100
Q

in what species can doppler BP monitoring be used?

A

wide variety - particularly good in rabbits

101
Q

what can be useful about doppler monitoring in species with no BP values?

A

can be used to track trends

102
Q

when is direct BP monitoring often used in exotics?

A

lab settings

103
Q

what arteries are often used for direct BP in exotics?

A

carotid
femoral
tail

104
Q

what should exotic temperature be monitored with?

A

rectal probe (mind size used!) as mask will make oral difficult

105
Q

what can the doppler probe be used for as well as BP monitoring?

A

placed over heart to give audible heart rate

106
Q

where should a doppler be placed on a snake when using it as a stethoscope?

A

place on apex beat

107
Q

where should a doppler be placed on a snake when using it as a stethoscope?

A

apex beat

108
Q

what is apex beat?

A

most inferolateral point on the chest where the cardiac pulsation can be palpated

109
Q

where should a doppler be placed on chelonians when using it as a stethoscope?

A

at the thoracic inlet or on the plastron at the junctio between the pectoral and abdominal scutes (in smaller species)

110
Q

where should a doppler be placed on a lizard when using it as a stethoscope?

A

at thoracic inlet, over the thoracic girdle or aimed close from behind

111
Q

how long should monitoring of exotic anaesthesia take place?

A

should be continuous until the animal is moving around

112
Q

what should be done during recovery from anaesthesia in exotics?

A

temperature regulated and monitored
in a safe environment
pain managed - particularly in prey species
encourage to eat (maybe not in reptiles)

113
Q

what is crucial about pain management in exotic species?

A

learn about pain signs in the specific species you are treating

114
Q

what are signs of acute pain in exotic species?

A
withdrawal of painful limb
escape behaviours
avoidance
aggression
restlessness
increased resp rate
115
Q

what are signs of chronic pain in exotics?

A

immobility
‘stinting’
aggression
- not as easy to identify as acute

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