Equine Castration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Equine Castration Deck (69)
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1
Q

why are horses castrated?

A

behaviour modification
management
control of breeding
medical reasons

2
Q

how may castration aid behaviour modification?

A

reduces aggression

geldings are easier to handle

3
Q

how can castration aid management?

A

can be turned out with mares

4
Q

for what medical reasons may castration be performed?

A

neoplasia
trauma
cryptorchidism

5
Q

what does cryptorchidism increase the risk of?

A

testicular neoplasia

6
Q

when is castration usually performed?

A

when both testis have descended (6 months - 2 years in horses)

7
Q

where can castration be performed?

A

field or hospital

8
Q

who must legally perform castration?

A

vet

9
Q

what are the anaesthetic options for castration?

A

standing sedation

GA

10
Q

what are the 3 surgical techniques used for castration?

A

open
semi closed
closed

11
Q

what happens during open castration?

A

vaginal tunic is incised and left open

12
Q

what happens during semi-closed castration?

A

vaginal tunic is incised but subsequently sutured

13
Q

what happens during closed castration?

A

vaginal tunic is sutured proximal to testis before incision

14
Q

what is open castration used for?

A

standing field castration

15
Q

when is open castration not used?

A

older horses
those previously used for breeding
donkeys

16
Q

what anaesthesia is required for closed and semi-closed castration techniques?

A

GA

17
Q

where are closed and semi-closed castrations usually performed?

A

hospital/clinic to maintain sterility

18
Q

how can the decision to castrate in a field/hospital be affected?

A

facilities of practice and yard
possibility of transporting the horse
technique to be used

19
Q

what affects whether standing sedation of GA are used?

A

size of horse (testis hard to visualise in small horses)
suitability for open procedures
temperament
cost

20
Q

describe the process of open castration

A

incision made through the skin and vaginal tunic to expose testis
emasculators applied to vans defrens and testicular vessels
they are held closed for a period of time and then released gently

21
Q

how do emasculators work?

A

crush vessels and cord (proximally) and transect distally

22
Q

how many blades does an emasculator have?

A

2 blades

23
Q

what is the role of the 2 blades of the emasculators?

A

one cuts, the other crushes

24
Q

how should emasculators be applied to the vans defrens?

A

nut to nut!

25
Q

why must you be careful when cleaning emasculators?

A

taken apart to clean and must be put back together so that ‘nut to nut’ is correct

26
Q

how should emasculators be stored?

A

loosely and then tightened up before use

27
Q

describe the process of closed castration

A

incision through skin only
blunt dissection of vaginal tunic containing testis from surrounding tissues
ligatures placed before emasculation

28
Q

what are the main options for scrotal closure after castration?

A

sutured (primary closure)
left open (second intention)
with or without ablation

29
Q

how is the scrotum left after field castrations?

A

open for drainage

30
Q

what type of anaesthetic agents is standing castration performed under?

A

sedation with alpha2-agonist and butorphanol with local anaesthetic into scrotum and testicle

31
Q

in what age animals is standing castration usually performed?

A

<18 months, well handled

32
Q

what are the advantages of standing castration?

A

quick
effective
cheap
traditional

33
Q

what are the disadvantages of standing castration?

A

poor asepsis
high incidence of minor complications
poor options for complication management
risk of injury to surgeon

34
Q

what is the equipment needed for standing castration?

A
sedation
analgesia (NSAID - injectable and oral)
antimicrobials
tetanus antitoxin
gloves
hibiscrub / spirit
swabs / cotton wool
local anaesthetic
needles and syringes
scalpel blade
sterile swabs
stitch kit
suture material
emasculators
allis tissue forceps
haemostats
be prepared for GA - ketamine and IV catheters
35
Q

how should a horse be prepped for standing castration?

A
sedate
check for presence of 2 testicles
scrub scrotum
LA injected into the subcutis and testicle
re-scrub the area
36
Q

what is essential to ensure safety when palpating, prepping and castrating a horse?

A

safe positioning to ensure animal cannot kick surgeon

37
Q

what position should horses be in for GA castration?

A

dorsal or lateral recumbancy

38
Q

what equipment is required for hospital GA castration?

A
gloves
scrub
clippers
urinary catheter
gloves for tail and hooves
drapes
towel clamps
surgical kit (as per standing)
saline
39
Q

what is required for GA castration in the field?

A

IV catheter

safe area to knock down and recover

40
Q

how should horses be positioned during field GA castration?

A

lateral recumbancy with hindleg held up bay a lead rope

41
Q

where should any assistants be placed during field GA castration?

A

by dorsal spine so out of kick/headbutt zone

42
Q

what should be checked prior to castration?

A

age of horse
tetanus status
has it been used for breeding (affects technique)
facilities available at yard (e.g. water, stable)
two descended testicles (checked by vet)

43
Q

what must be discussed with the owner prior to castration?

A

costs
risks/complications
procedure

44
Q

what are the main complications of castration?

A
swelling 
haemorrhage (during or after)
infection
tetanus
evisceration
45
Q

what is the most common infection seen after castration?

A

schirrous cord

46
Q

what is schirrous cord?

A

chronic staphylococcus infection of spermatic cord usually associated with ligatures

47
Q

what is evisceration?

A

prolapse of omentum or intestine through inguinal ring

48
Q

which is the most serious type of evisceration?

A

intestine - an emergancy

49
Q

how can evisceration of omentum be managed?

A

resection

50
Q

what should happen if evisceration occurs?

A

owner told to support intestine with clean towel
sedation
lavage
refurral to hospital for further treatment / surgery

51
Q

what must be monitored for following open castration?

A
all potential complications
excessive bleeding
swelling
anything protruding from surgical site
appetite and fecal output
52
Q

how much bleeding is expected following open castration?

A

drips expected for first 12 hours - should be able to count them

53
Q

what bleeding from the scrotum after open castration will require intervention?

A

steady stream of blood

pulsating/arterial blood

54
Q

what level of swelling is acceptable?

A

no larger than an orange or pre-surgical size

55
Q

what effects of the sedation / anaesthesia must be monitored following castration?

A

appetite and fecal output

check for colic signs

56
Q

what length of box rest is required following standard open castration/primary closure of scrotum?

A

24-48 hours

57
Q

when is turnout permitted following standard open castration?

A

7-10 days post op

58
Q

how often should horses be walked in hand in the days after standard open castration?

A

2-3 times a day

59
Q

what is the benefit of in hand walking following standard open castration?

A

reduces swelling

encourages drainage

60
Q

what is used for analgesia following standard open castration?

A

NSAIDs

61
Q

for how long should recently castrated geldings be kept away from mares?

A

2 months post-op as they can remain fertile

62
Q

what is cryptorchidism?

A

failure of testicular descent from the caudal pole of the kidney to the scrotum during embryonic development. Either retained inguinally or abdominally

63
Q

how can cryptorchidism be diagnosed?

A
history
palpation
ultrasound
blood tests
surgical exploration
64
Q

what blood test may be used to diagnose cryptorchidism in horses over 3 years?

A

oestrogen sulphate

anti-mullerian hormone

65
Q

what blood test may be used to diagnose cryptorchidism in horses under 3 years and donkeys?

A

hCG stimulation

anti-mullerian hormone

66
Q

what is the prefurred method for cryptorchidectomy?

A

laproscopic

67
Q

what anaesthesia is required for cryptorchidectomy?

A

standing sedation or anaesthesia

68
Q

what testis is laproscopic cryptorchidectomy more relevant for?

A

abdominal

69
Q

when may ligation occur during laparscopic cryptorchidectomy?

A

internally or externally

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