Hospitalisation and Nursing of Rabbits, Rodents and Ferrets Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hospitalisation and Nursing of Rabbits, Rodents and Ferrets Deck (196)
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1
Q

what are the main musculoskeletal features of rabbits?

A

skeleton is very light but have hugely powerful hind limbs which means they can damage themselves

2
Q

what are the main respiratory tract features of rabbits?

A

obligate nasal breather
larynx is hard to visualise so are difficult to intubate
small lungs relative to size

3
Q

what are the main digestive features of rabbits?

A

hypsodont aradicular teeth
large, thin walled stomach
small and large intestine designed to digest grass
GI tract makes up large proportion of body weight
coprophagia

4
Q

are rabbits able to vomit?

A

no

5
Q

does the stomach fully empty in rabbits?

A

stomach is never fully empty and contains hair balls which may be problematic if animal becomes dehydrated

6
Q

what are the main urogenital features of rabbits?

A

males have open inguinal ring which should be closed on castration
females have 2 cervices and large thin walled vagina
lots of fat in uterine ligament

7
Q

why are rabbit spays difficult?

A

lots of fat in uterine ligament

8
Q

what are the main eye features of rabbits?

A

prominent, forward facing eyes

have large venous plexus at medial canthus

9
Q

how may increases pressure in the vena cava be seen in rabbits?

A

eye will protrude due to large venous plexus at medial canthus

10
Q

when should the rabbit be first assessed?

A

in the cage alone before it is handled

11
Q

what must be assessed about a rabbit?

A
posture
HR
RR
temperature
droppings
weight
12
Q

is HR easy to monitor in rabbits?

A

no - very rapid

13
Q

describe the RR of rabbits

A

fast and shallow

14
Q

what is the correct temperature range for rabbits?

A

38.3-39.4 degrees

15
Q

what should rabbit droppings look like?

A

round, plump and produced regularly

16
Q

what is one of the most crucial things to monitor in the hospitalised rabbit?

A

droppings

17
Q

what can be done to make hospitalisation as good as possible for rabbits?

A
secure
non-slip floor
correct temperature to avoid heat stress
no predators
offer water from bottle and bowl
bring food from home
companion should be brought as well wherever possible
out of cage exercise to increase gut motility
18
Q

what veins can be used for blood sampling in rabbits?

A

lateral saphenous
marginal ear vein
cephalic
jugular

19
Q

how should the rabbit be restrained for lateral saphenous blood sampling?

A

lateral recumbancy

20
Q

what is the marginal ear vein useful for?

A

small samples

IV catheterisation

21
Q

what is the jugular vein useful for in rabbits?

A

large volumes e.g. blood transfusion

22
Q

what level of restraint is required for jugular vein sampling?

A

very good conscious restraint or sedate to reduce risk of jugular laceration

23
Q

what volume of blood can be safely taken from rabbits?

A

max 1ml/100g but less is better

24
Q

via what routes can rabbits be medicated?

A
oral
SC
IM
IV
topical
shampoo
cream
pesticides (spot on)
25
Q

what muscle is most commonly used for IM injections in rabbits?

A

quadriceps

26
Q

why is it vital that rabbits have pain controlled?

A

improve QOL and encourage eating to avoid gut stasis

27
Q

why is pain so difficult to assess in rabbits?

A

natural response is to hide signs due to prey status

28
Q

what signs of pain may a rabbit show?

A
quieter than normal
teeth grinding (severe pain)
29
Q

what can be used to assess rabbit pain levels?

A

rabbit grimace scale

30
Q

what analgesia may be given to rabbits?

A

NSAIDS - e.g. meloxicam

Opioids - e.g. buprenorphine or methadone

31
Q

when should rabbits not receive NSAIDs?

A

if dehydrated

32
Q

if in doubt about a rabbits pain status what should you do?

A

give analgesia

33
Q

are buster collars tolerated by rabbits?

A

not that well - can be stressful and prevent coprophagia

34
Q

when may it be necessary to put a buster collar on a rabbit?

A

to prevent chewing through drip lines and dressings although some will still chew through drip lines with one on!

35
Q

what is the prefurrable type of buster collar for rabbits?

A

soft

36
Q

what is the fluid maintenance calculation for rabbits?

A

100ml/kg every 24 hours

37
Q

why is rabbits fluid maintenance rate high than dogs and cats?

A

due to higher metabolism

38
Q

through what routes can fluid therapy be provided to rabbits?

A

oral
SC
IV

39
Q

what is the disadvantage of oral fluid therapy?

A

difficult to get volume in to replace deficits

40
Q

what volume of fluid can be given subcutaneously?

A

~100 mls

41
Q

what veins may be used in the rabbit for IVFT?

A

marginal ear
cephalic
lateral saphenous in an emergency as hard to secure

42
Q

how may IVFT be given to rabbits?

A

drip

bolus - no fluid line so may be better tolerated by rabbit

43
Q

what fluids are most commonly used for IVFT in rabbits?

A

crystalloids (0.9 NaCl or Hartmann’s)

44
Q

what may colloids be used for in rabbits?

A

raising BP or in the case of blood loss

45
Q

are blood transfusions used in rabbits?

A

yes - not much known about blood types so matching is recommended

46
Q

what test can be used to match blood in rabbits before transfusion?

A

slide agglutination cross match

47
Q

how may rabbits be fed if unwilling to eat on their own?

A

syringe feeding

48
Q

what size syringe is needed to syringe feed rabbits?

A

1ml

49
Q

describe how to syringe feed rabbits

A

1ml at a time so rabbit can eat without spitting anything out
small tip of syringe into side of mouth

50
Q

what type of food should be syringe fed?

A

finely ground grass based

51
Q

what type of fibre must be supplied to rabbits?

A

long chain fibre

52
Q

what can be used to get long chain fibre into a rabbit’s diet?

A

strong flavored herbs or dandilions

53
Q

what parasites are rabbits affected by?

A

mites
fleas
coccidia
worms

54
Q

how can rabbit mites be diagnosed?

A

hair plucking

55
Q

what mites are commonly found on rabbits?

A

Cheyletiella paristivorax

Listrophrus gibbus - fur mite

56
Q

what are the signs of mites found on rabbits?

A

hair loss and irritation

57
Q

how are mites on rabbits treated?

A

ivermectin

58
Q

what sort of fleas do rabbits often get?

A

rabbit fleas rare in domesticated rabbits

most often cat fleas

59
Q

what is caused by Coccidia in rabbits?

A

GI upset

60
Q

how is Coccidia diagnosed in rabbits?

A

faecal floatation or wet prep

61
Q

are rabbits routinely wormed?

A

no as worms are rarely of clinical significance

62
Q

what is the main GI issue found in rabbits?

A

gastrointestinal stasis

63
Q

is gut stasis in rabbits an emergency?

A

yes

64
Q

what is gut stasis?

A

reduced or stopped intestinal motility so food doesn’t pass through

65
Q

what are the presenting sings of gut stasis?

A

anorexia
absence of droppings
abdominal pain (quiet, hunched up, bruxism)

66
Q

what are the main causes of gut stasis in rabbits?

A

pain
stress
inappropriate diet
other concurrent disease

67
Q

how is gut stasis treated?

A
analgesia
fluids
prokinetics
syringe feeding - crucial
look for underlying cause
68
Q

what prokinetic drug is used for rabbits?

A

metaclopromide - although not ideal

69
Q

what level of substance in the blood is useful for assessing pain levels?

A

glucose

70
Q

what does a glucose reading of <5 indicate in rabbits?

A

low due to pathology or inappetance

71
Q

what does a glucose reading of 5-10 indicate in rabbits?

A

normal rabbit

72
Q

what does a glcose reading of 10-15 indicate in rabbits?

A

probably just stressed - maybe some pain

73
Q

what does a glucose reading of 15-20 indicate in rabbits?

A

significant pain

74
Q

what does a glucose reading of 20+ indicate in rabbits?

A

very likely GI obstruction or liver lobe torsion

75
Q

what are the main GI issues seen in rabbits?

A

GI stasis
GI obstruction
liver lobe torsion
dental disease

76
Q

what lobe of the liver becomes twisted during torsion?

A

caudate

77
Q

what is the presentation of GI obstruction in rabbits similar to?

A

gut stasis

78
Q

why is diarrhoea not common in rabbits?

A

due to acidity of stomach acid

79
Q

what is the most common cause of true diarrhoea in rabbits?

A

misuse of antibiotics

80
Q

what is faecal clagging?

A

impaction of faecal material around bottom as caecotrophs are not being eaten

81
Q

what can cause faecal clagging in rabbits?

A

too much carbohydrate in diet so number of caecotrophs increase
obesity
dental disease and back pain preventing coprophagia

82
Q

what are the signs of serious respiratory issues in rabbits?

A

open mouth breathing

difficulties breathing

83
Q

is respiratory distress in rabbits an emergency?

A

yes

84
Q

what types of respiratory disease are common in rabbits?

A

URT
pneumonia is less so
secondary to neoplasia

85
Q

what bacteria can cause rabbits respiratory issues?

A

Pasturella

86
Q

what are the main causes of polyuria in rabbits?

A

renal disease

dental pain - drink more to soothe mouth

87
Q

what are the main reasons for urinary incontinence in rabbits?

A
polyuria
bladder infection
bladder sludge, stone or neoplasia
back pain
neurological
88
Q

why can back pain lead to urine scalding?

A

unable to position correctly to urinate

89
Q

what are the main signs of vestibular disease in rabbits?

A

head tilt
circling
rolling

90
Q

what are the causes of vestibular disease?

A

middle ear infection
Encephalitozoon Cuniculi
toxoplasma

91
Q

what sort of organism is Encephalitozoon Cuniculi?

A

microsporidian parasite - single celled

92
Q

what organ does Encephalitozoon Cuniculi target?

A

the kidneys

93
Q

what other system does Encephalitozoon Cuniculi affect?

A

CNS

94
Q

how is Encephalitozoon Cuniculi shed?

A

in the urine and spread through ingestion of urine contaminated food/water

95
Q

is Encephalitozoon Cuniculi zoonotic?

A

potentially - especially for immunocompromised people

96
Q

at are the symptoms of Encephalitozoon Cuniculi?

A
head tilt
ataxia
hindlimb weakness
urinary incontinence
renal failure
cataracts if passed from mother
97
Q

how is Encephalitozoon Cuniculi treated?

A

fenbendazole (Panacur 20 mg/kg for 4 weeks)

98
Q

what are the main skin problems of rabbits?

A
mites - skin and ear
fly strike
ringworm
abscesses 
wounds
pododermatitis
otitis
99
Q

what is fly strike caused by?

A

urine scald or flagging due to the animal not eating caecotrophs
becomes a site for flies to lay eggs and maggots become present
animal will rapidly deteriorate

100
Q

how are abscesses treated in rabbits?

A

often surgical removal

101
Q

what is pododermatitis?

A

sore feet due to loss of hair and formation of pressure sores

102
Q

what are the 2 main viruses which affect rabbits?

A

Myxomatosis

viral haemorrhagic disease (Calici virus)

103
Q

is myxomatosis endemic in the UK?

A

yes

104
Q

how is myxomatosis spread?

A

biting insects

direct contact with infected animals

105
Q

what are the symptoms of myxomatosis?

A

swelling around eyes and genitals

occular discharge

106
Q

what is the prognosis of myxomatosis?

A

fatal and very painful

107
Q

how long has viral haemorrhagic disease been in the UK?

A

since 1992

108
Q

what is viral haemorrhagic disease spread by?

A

fomites or direct contact

109
Q

what are the symptoms of viral haemorrhagic disease?

A

sudden death

haemorrhage from mouth, nose and anus

110
Q

is there vaccination available for viral haemorrhagic disease?

A

yes

111
Q

when should the first viral haemorrhagic disease vaccine be given?

A

age varies

112
Q

what is found in the current UK rabbit vaccine?

A

genetically modified myxoma virus that also protects against viral haemorrhagic disease

113
Q

what is the difference between the new strain of viral haemorrhagic disease and the old?

A

lower mortality and varying clinical signs in new strain

some rabbits will die - others have no symptoms

114
Q

are the current UK vaccines protective against viral haemorrhagic disease?

A

not fully

115
Q

what vaccines may be used to protect against new viral haemorrhagic disease strains?

A

RHD2 imported from europe

116
Q

what are the main small mammals seen in practice?

A
rats
mice
gerbils
hamsters
guinea pigs
chinchillas
degus
117
Q

what are the 2 main groups of rodents based on their dental morphology?

A

hystricomorphs - open rooted molars

myomorphs - closed rooted molars

118
Q

what rodents fall into the hystricomorph group of rodents?

A

guinea pigs
chinchillas
degus

119
Q

what animals fall into the myomorph group of rodents?

A

rats
mice
hamsters
gerbils

120
Q

describe the incisors of all rodents

A

hypsodont - continually growning

121
Q

do rodents often dhow signs of illness?

A

no - hide signs well as they are prey species

122
Q

what is the effect on health of rodents that they hide illness well?

A

they often have advanced illness before they are seen and are difficult to assess

123
Q

what can you monitor to get a picture of a rodents health?

A

eating and drinking
droppings
weight
RR

124
Q

why is heart rate in rodents difficult to monitor?

A

very high - can be counted in multiples of 10

125
Q

where should rodents be kept away from in hospital?

A

any predators

126
Q

why is temperature control crucial for rodents during hospitalisation?

A

most are prone to heat stress above 24 degrees

127
Q

what is crucial about the housing of rodents while hospitalised?

A

escape proof enclosures
suitable diet and bedding
hide areas

128
Q

is blood sampling easy in rodents?

A

very difificult

129
Q

where can blood samples be taken from in rodents?

A

tail vein (difficult)
lateral saphenous
cranial vena cava

130
Q

how much blood should be taken from rodents when sampling?

A

max 1ml per 100g but safer to take 1/2 ml

131
Q

is sampling blood form the cranial vena cava how should the patient be restrained?

A

dorsal

under GA

132
Q

via what routes may medication be given to rodents?

A
oral
SC
IM
IV
shampoos
creams
spot on (pestacides)
133
Q

how can pain be assessed in rodents?

A

difficult - use rat/mouse grimace scale

134
Q

what analgesia is often given to small rodents?

A

NSAID or opiates

135
Q

what dose of analgesia is needed for rodents?

A

higher than that for dogs and cats (e.g. 1-2 mg/kg meloxicam for rats)

136
Q

why do rodents need higher analgesia doses than larger animals?

A

have higher metabolic rates

137
Q

what is the maintenance fluid requirement for rodents?

A

100 ml/kg/day

138
Q

via what route may fluids be given in rodents?

A
IV (difficult)
IO
SC (good unless animal shocked)
oral
IP (last resort)
139
Q

what are the common medical problems seen in all rodents?

A
mites
bite wounds
abscesses
ringworm (zoonotic)
respiratory problems
tumours
fractures
140
Q

what mite are commonly seen in rodents?

A

sarcoptes

demodex

141
Q

how are fractures in rodents left to heal?

A

can be left to heal with analgesia only as there is little force put through the bones
amputation possible
surgical repair

142
Q

what are the common medical conditions seen in rats?

A

respiratory infections

143
Q

what can prevent respiratory infections in rats?

A

good hygiene

144
Q

what is thought to be a significant cause of mammary masses in rats?

A

hormonal - could be prevented by spaying or hormonal implant

145
Q

what type of tumour are the mammary masses seen in rats?

A

usually benign adenoma which can be removed

146
Q

are mice commonly seen in veterinary practice?

A

no

147
Q

what are the most common medical problems seen in mice?

A

skin problems

148
Q

do skin issues in mice tend to respond to treatment?

A

no

149
Q

what are the common medical problems seen in hamsters?

A
overgrown incisors
cheek pouch impaction
'wet tail' (diarrhoea)
demodex
epitheliotrophic lymphoma
pyometra
150
Q

how can overgrown incisors in hamsters be treated?

A

burring

151
Q

what are the common medical problems seen in gerbils?

A

nasal dermatitis
ventral scent gland tumor
tail slip (degloving)
epilepsy

152
Q

what are the common medical problems seen in guinea pigs?

A
dental disease
mites
scurvy (hypovitaminosis C)
urolithiasis
pregnancy toxaemia
pododermatitis
cystic ovaries
153
Q

what dental issues can guinea pigs have?

A

tongue becomes entrapped by molars due to overgrowth

154
Q

how can hypovitaminosis C be treated in guinea pigs?

A

good quality, fresh, in date food

155
Q

how is urolithiasis in guinea pigs caused?

A

high Ca2+ diet

156
Q

what is pregnancy toxaemia in guinea pigs caused by?

A

inappetance leading to low glucose levels and ketoacidosis as a response

157
Q

what is pododermatitis?

A

pressure sores on feet due to poor bedding which can become infected

158
Q

what are the signs of cystic ovaries?

A

fur loss

hormonal changes

159
Q

how can cystic ovaries in guinea pigs be treated?

A

surgical removal

medical treatment

160
Q

what are the common medical problems seen in chinchillas?

A
dental disease (main issue)
respiratory disease
161
Q

what order and family are ferrets in?

A

Carnivora

Mustelid

162
Q

what are ferrets used for?

A

some work

becoming a popular pet

163
Q

what are the MSK features of the ferret?

A

compact muscular body with a very flexible spine

164
Q

what organ within a ferret can vary greatly in size?

A

spleen

165
Q

can ferret anal scent glands be removed?

A

no - regarded as mutilation

166
Q

what animal can ferrets be regarded as similar to?

A

cats

167
Q

how should ferrets be on exam?

A

alert and inquisitive

168
Q

what parameters can be assessed on the ferret?

A

pulse
RR
MM
hydration (skin tent and moistness of MM)
rectal temperature (only if concerned as not tolerated well)

169
Q

how should a kennel be set up for a ferret?

A

cat cages generally fine
need a perspex front or fine mesh to prevent escape
away from cats and dogs as may be fearful
away from prey species
temperature below 30 degrees
line cage with paper or vet bed
give something to hide under

170
Q

how should ferrets be fed in hospital?

A

normal diet as fed by owner

use similar bowls and water bottles to owner

171
Q

what diets can be fed to hospitalised ferrets?

A

feline critical care diets e.g. Hills a/d

oxbow carnivore care

172
Q

should ferrets be fasted before surgery?

A

no more than 4 hours as are at risk of hypoglycaemia

173
Q

how can blood samples be taken from ferrets?

A
sedation or GA needed
jugular
lateral saphenous
cephalic (catheters mainly)
cranial vena cava
174
Q

how can medication be given to ferrets?

A

SC (into scruff)
IM (thigh or lumbar muscles)
IV - cephalic or lateral saphenous
oral - tablets or suspensions

175
Q

what dosage of medication is required for ferrets?

A

similar to cats although specific ferret formularies are now available

176
Q

what analgesia may be given to ferrets?

A

NSAId or opiates

177
Q

what is the issue with giving NSAIDs to ferrets?

A

prone to GI uleration so need GI protectants

178
Q

what opioid doses should ferrets be given?

A

similar to dogs and cats

179
Q

what routes are available for fluid therapy in ferrets?

A

oral
SC (scruff or lateral abdomen)
IP - caudo-lateral abdomen
IV

180
Q

how mush fluid can be given to ferrets IP?

A

up to 30ml/kg

181
Q

what is the maintenance fluid requirement for ferrets?

A

100 ml/kg/day

182
Q

what are the common medical problems seen in ferrets?

A
persistent oestrus
adrenal disease
lymphoma
insulinoma
inflammatory bowel disease
dental disease
183
Q

what is persistent oestrus in ferrets?

A

Jill will remain in season until mated

184
Q

what is the problem with persistent oestrus in ferrets?

A

oestrus suppresses bone marrow which leads to anaemia

185
Q

how can persistent oestrus in ferrets be prevented?

A

progesterone injections to bring out of season
hormonal implants
vasectomised male
spay

186
Q

what are the problems with spaying ferrets?

A

leaves them predisposed to adrenal disease as without oestrogen there can be adrenal hypertrophy

187
Q

what are the signs of lymphoma in ferrets?

A

enlarged lymph nodes

188
Q

what are the signs of insulinoma in ferrets?

A

hypoglycaemia

189
Q

what may help treat insulinoma?

A

steroids

190
Q

are system is problematic in ferrets?

A

GI

191
Q

what are the main dental diseases seen in ferrets?

A

periodontal disease

calculus

192
Q

where can ferrets get influenza from?

A

passes from owner to ferret

193
Q

what viruses can ferrets get?

A

influenza
distemper
aleutian disease (parvo in ferrets)

194
Q

are there distemper vaccines available that are licensed for ferrets?

A

no but can use 1/2 dose of a dog vaccine

195
Q

what must you check before giving canine distemper vaccines to ferrets?

A

ensure that the vaccine has not been cultured in ferret cell line

196
Q

what are the common conditions seen in African pygmy hedgehogs?

A
dental disease (calculus)
obesity
wobbly hedgehog disease (unknown cause and treatment)
renal disease
tumours

Decks in X Clinical Veterinary Nursing Theory Class (70):