Neutering Flashcards Preview

X Clinical Veterinary Nursing Theory > Neutering > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neutering Deck (79)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

when in the oestrus cycle should a bitch spay be performed?

A

during anoestrus (seasons must be avoided)

2
Q

at what age is a bitch spay normally performed?

A

at 6 months (before first season)

or 3 months after the end of any season

3
Q

what is the benefit of performing a bitch spay before or after first season?

A

maximum benefit in terms of prevention of mammary cancer

4
Q

why should a bitch spay be performed 3 months after a season?

A

to avoid false pregnancy

5
Q

should a bitch spay occur if there is false pregnancy?

A

no

6
Q

at what age are dogs typically castrated?

A

6-9 months

may leave longer for larger breeds (>1 year) if there are no behavioural issues

7
Q

when are cats spayed?

A

4-6 months

usually advocate saying as early as possible once over 2kg

8
Q

can cats be spayed in season?

A

yes but uterine tissue likely to be more friable

9
Q

when is cat castration performed?

A

4-6 months as long as testicles are big enough

10
Q

what are the main reasons for spaying?

A

population control (especially cats)
prevention or treatment of health conditions
assisting management of diseases like DM or epilepsy
control of hereditary diseases

11
Q

what health conditions can be prevented by spaying?

A
pyometra
mammary cancer
false pregnancy
glandular hypoplasia
prolapse
ovarian cysts
12
Q

what are the main indications for castration?

A
population control
management and behavioural modifications
prevention/treatment of disease
control of hereditory diseases
infectious disease control (e.g. FIV)
13
Q

what behavioural modification may be achieved by castration?

A
control of:
roaming
male aggression
unwanted sexual behaviour
spraying and smell in tom cats
14
Q

what diseases can be prevented by castration?

A

testicular disease
prostatic disease (BPH)
perineal rupture

15
Q

what are the possible side effects of spaying?

A
weight gain
coat change
urinary incontinence
perivulvar dermatitis
hypoplasia of external genitalia
increased risk of orthopaedic diseases and some cancers
16
Q

what are the possible side effects of castration?

A

weight gain
coat change
worsening of nervous behaviour
increased risk of development of bladder and prostate cancer
delayed closure of growth plates in early neutering (giant breeds especially)

17
Q

what are the 2 techniques available for spay?

A

surgical (most common)

medical

18
Q

what is an ovariectomy?

A

surgical removal of both ovaries (common in lap spay)

19
Q

what is ovariohysterectomy?

A

removal of both ovaries and uterus

20
Q

what are the 2 ways of performing spay?

A

midline laparotomy

laparoscopically

21
Q

why are laparoscopic spays more costly?

A

equipment costs more

22
Q

what are the benefits of laparoscopic spays?

A
smaller incisions (especially in large breeds)
faster return to normal activity
reduced post op discomfort
23
Q

how should the animal be positioned for a bitch spay?

A

midline approach
dorsal recumbancy
surgeon has dog’s head to their left

24
Q

what clip is needed for a bitch spay?

A

umbilicus included and reaches pubis
2/3 of animal width
may need to be wider in a lap spay

25
Q

why is a wide clip for a midline laparotomy needed?

A

drapes may move and incision may need to be extended

26
Q

what prep is needed for all neutering surgeries?

A

routine aseptic scrub prep

27
Q

what instruments are needed for a bitch spay?

A

soft tissue kit
at least 3 large artery forceps (curved or straight)
spay hook

28
Q

what suture material may be requested by the vet during a bitch spay?

A
Ligatures: Synthetic absorbable multifilament or monofilament, e.g. Vicryl or PDS or Catgut (less common)
Linea alba (midline): Synthetic absorbable long-duration monofilament, e.g. PDS - requires extra strength due to gravity
Subcutaneous layer: Synthetic absorbable short-duration monofilament, e.g. Monocryl
Skin (commonly using an intradermal suture pattern): Synthetic absorbable short- duration monofilament, e.g. Monocryl
29
Q

what is the most common approach for a cat spay?

A

flank

30
Q

when is a midline approach used for a cat spay?

A

if pregnant or not known if already neutered

31
Q

how should the animal be positioned for a cat spay?

A

Cat lies in right lateral recumbency, surgeon has cat’s head to their left
Hindlegs often tied back but check with surgeon

32
Q

how is the incision site for cat spay found?

A

making a triangle between the wing of the ilium and the greater trochanter

33
Q

what instruments are needed for cat spay?

A

Standard soft tissue kit
Must include at least 3 small artery forceps (either curved or straight)
Spay hook use can be more common in cats

34
Q

what suture material is commonly used for cat spays?

A

Ligatures: Synthetic absorbable multifilament or monofilament, Catgut sometimes used
Muscle: Synthetic absorbable short-duration monofilament, e.g. Monocryl
Subcutaneous layer: Synthetic absorbable short-duration monofilament, e.g. Monocryl
Skin (commonly using an intradermal suture pattern): Synthetic absorbable short- duration monofilament, e.g. Monocryl

35
Q

what are the possible complications due to spay surgery?

A

Haemorrhage
Ovarian remnant syndrome (bit of ovary left behind)
Stump granuloma/pyometra (rare)
Urinary tract injury (trauma to the ureter during resection of the uterus)
Abdominal hernia
Wound infection

36
Q

what are the key areas of post op monitoring following a spay?

A

Standard GA monitoring and post GA care
Signs of internal haemorrhage – dropping BP, pale mms, lethargy
Problems with wound – oozing, swelling, discomfort
Ensure no patient interference with wound

37
Q

what are the main areas involved in spay post op care?

A
pain relief
stop patient interference with wound
rest
feeding
post op checks
38
Q

what pain relief is usually given to spay patients?

A

opioid and NSAID common on day of op

often sent home on oral NSAIDs

39
Q

how can patient interference with wound be prevented?

A

buster collar
body suit
supervised time with it off only

40
Q

how long should patients be kept rested for following spay?

A

10 days
short lead walks
avoid jumping etc

41
Q

how should the spay patient be fed post op?

A

bland diet immediately post GA
back to normal food after
warn owners of need to reduce calorie intake in long term

42
Q

when are post op checks for spay’s needed?

A

2-3 days and then 10 days post op

check recovery from GA and wound healing

43
Q

what are the main techniques for castration?

A

surgical (orchiectomy)

medial (chemical castration)

44
Q

what is scrotal ablation?

A

removal of testis and scrotum usually performed if there is a problem with the scrotum itself

45
Q

what extension of the peritoneum covers the testis?

A

vaginal tunic

46
Q

what is open castration?

A

vaginal tunic is incised

47
Q

what is closed castration?

A

vaginal tunic left intact

48
Q

how is the epididymis attached to the vaginal tunic?

A

via a ligament

49
Q

what approach is used for dog castration?

A

pre-scrotal midlien

50
Q

where is the dog positioned for castration?

A

dorsal recumbency

surgeon may stand on either side

51
Q

what must be checked before GA for neutering?

A

presence of both testis

that the animal is definitely female (cats)

52
Q

where should the clip for dog castration be placed?

A

Clip area between tip of penis and scrotum and several centimetres on either side

53
Q

why should you take care when clipping a dog for castration?

A

avoid clipping too close on the scrotum itself – the skin in this whole area is very sensitive, beware clipper rash!

54
Q

what is sometimes placed in castrations during prep?

A

LA in testicles / incision site

55
Q

what instruments are needed for dog castration?

A

Standard soft tissue kit – at least 3 artery forceps

56
Q

what are the common suture choices for dog castrates?

A

Ligatures: Synthetic absorbable multifilament or monofilament, e.g. Vicryl
or PDS. Catgut may still be used
Subcutaneous layer: Synthetic absorbable short-duration monofilament, e.g. Monocryl
Skin (commonly using an intradermal suture pattern): Synthetic absorbable short-duration monofilament, e.g. Monocryl

57
Q

what approach is used for cat castration?

A

scrotal - an incision on each testicle

58
Q

what position should cats be in for castration?

A

lateral recumbancy

59
Q

where should be clipped for cat castration?

A

Clip just the scrotum and immediate surrounding area

60
Q

are drapes usually used for cat castration?

A

no

61
Q

what instruments are needed for cat castration?

A

Common to only use a scalpel blade and no kit

Some surgeons prefer to use a pair of artery forceps

62
Q

when do testicles normally descend?

A

30-40 days

63
Q

what is advised if testis have not descended by 6 months?

A

surgical removal

64
Q

why is surgical removal of retain testicles needed?

A

increased risk of neoplasia

65
Q

in cryptorchid castration what must be removed?

A

the both testicles even if one not retained

66
Q

where can retained testicles be found?

A

anywhere along normal path of descent

67
Q

what are the main classifications of location of retained testicles?

A

pre-scrotal
inguinal
abdominal

68
Q

how should the patient be prepped for an inguinal or pre-scrotal castration?

A

similar to routine castration but with wider clip

69
Q

what is needed to remove a retained testicle if it is abdominal?

A

exploratory laparotomy

70
Q

what are the possible complications due to castration?

A

Scrotal bruising/swelling
Haemorrhage - either Scrotal haematoma or haemoabdomen
Infection
Self-trauma – very common without a buster collar

71
Q

what are the key areas for peri-operative monitoring of castration patients?

A

Standard GA monitoring and post GA care
Signs of haemorrhage – internal (dropping BP, pale mms, lethargy) or external (swelling/bruising of scrotum)
Problems with wound – oozing, swelling, discomfort
Ensure no patient interference with wound

72
Q

what causes most of the complications in castration patients?

A

patient interferance

73
Q

what pain relief is given following castration?

A

opioid and NSAID injections on the day
dogs sent home with oral NSAIDs
cats often fine with just injections

74
Q

how is patient interference with castration site prevented in dogs?

A

buster collar

suit can be used but dog may lick outside or still be able to reach incision

75
Q

how is patient interference with castration site prevented in cats?

A

not often prevented as cats don’t tend to lick and it is of benefit for them to keep their bottom clean

76
Q

how long should dogs be rested for following castration?

A

10 days - short lead walks, no jumping

77
Q

how long should cats be rested for following castration?

A

~2 days

78
Q

when are castration post op checks needed for dogs?

A

2-3 days and then 10 days post op

79
Q

when are castration post op checks needed for cats?

A

may have on at 2-3 days but don’t usually need more

some practices don’t do any

Decks in X Clinical Veterinary Nursing Theory Class (70):