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Flashcards in Equine Healthcare Deck (128)
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1
Q

describe some of the signs of a happy relaxed horse

A

head up
wide ear base
relaxed (loose bottom lip)
resting hind limb

2
Q

describe some of the signs of a worried horse

A

tight face
triangulated eye
neck muscles tense
leaning back

3
Q

what are some of the signs of an angry or very unhappy horse?

A

flared nostrils

ears back

4
Q

what can be assessed about a horse to assess their health?

A

demenour

5
Q

what should a horses demeanor be compared to when assessing health?

A

other horses in the group
itself on a normal day
its normal self in todays situation

6
Q

what is the normal demeanor of a healthy horse?

A

BAR
bright
alert
responsive

7
Q

how can a horses demeanor be described?

A

bright or quiet
alert or subdued or dull
responsive or unresponsive or hyperaesthetic

8
Q

define hyperaesthetic

A

excessive physical sensitivity

9
Q

describe how a normal horse should behave in relation to it’s normal surroundings

A

interested - head up, ears reacting to change

10
Q

describe how a normal horse should behave in relation to it’s normal routine

A

should be behaving as it would normally - mooching around, eating or sleeping

11
Q

describe how a normal horse should behave in relation to it’s engagement with others

A

normal engagement - easy or hard to catch as normal, stood with friends, reacts to stimuli normally

12
Q

what does DUDE stand for?

A

defecating
urinating
drinking
eating

13
Q

what quantity of faeces should be produced by a horse per day?

A

4-13 piles

14
Q

approximately how many kg of faeces wound be produced by a 500kg horse per day?

A

17kg

15
Q

what does the appearance of normal horse faeces relate to?

A

diet

16
Q

what is the normal colour of horse faeces?

A

dark green

17
Q

what should happen when you squeeze fresh horse faeces?

A

some moisture should come out

18
Q

what should not be seen in healthy equine faeces?

A

any parasites

19
Q

where may faeces be located in the stable?

A

on the top of the bed in single spot or could be messy - depends on what is normal for the horse

20
Q

when is a messy bed concerning?

A

if it is not normal for the horse

21
Q

how often should horses urinate?

A

several times per day

22
Q

how may urine be seen in the stable?

A

one large or several small wet patches

23
Q

why may horses not urinate on a hard surface?

A

prevention of splashback

24
Q

what is the normal posture of a urinating horse?

A

hindlimbs wide and caudal, back stretched and pelvis lifted

25
Q

how may a mares urination change with oestrus?

A

more frequent and smaller volume

26
Q

what volume of water should horses drink per day?

A

40-60ml/kg per day

27
Q

when does horses drinking increase normally?

A

when eating - particularly with dry food

28
Q

what condition may be indicated by polydipsia?

A

PPID - Cushings

29
Q

should a healthy horse be interested in food?!

A

yes! most interested in food/treats at any time

30
Q

how much should horses eat per day?

A

1.5 to 2.5% of body weight

31
Q

how frequently should horses be fed?

A

continuous trickle due to risk of gastric uleration

32
Q

how often to horses spend grazing through the day by choice?

A

18 hrs per day

33
Q

how can a horses diet be restricted if they are obese?

A

reduce intake to a minimum of 1% bodyweight dry matter intake

34
Q

when is the best time of the day for a horse to be without food/starved?

A

early hours of the morning

35
Q

what is the first thing that should be observed when examining the horse?

A

demenour and behaviour

36
Q

what parameters are included within an examination of the horse?

A
respiration
pulse/HR
MM and CRT
lymph nodes
auscultation
temperature
37
Q

what parameters should be observed first in the horse during the physical exam?

A

RR and HR as these are dynamic and may change due to exam

38
Q

what should be observed about respiration?

A

rate and effort

39
Q

what is the normal RR for horses?

A

12-20

40
Q

should equine respiration be easy to see?

A

no

41
Q

what are signs of increased respiratory effort in horses?

A
nasal flare (may relate to exertion)
abdominal effort
heave line
42
Q

how should nares appear in a healthy horse?

A

moist but no discharge

43
Q

what abnormal sign may be seen when examining horses respiration?

A

coughing

44
Q

what is the normal HR for horses?

A

30-40 bpm

45
Q

where can equine pulses be palpated?

A

transverse facial artery
facial artery
digital artery
apex beat palpation and cardiac auscultation

46
Q

where can the transverse facial artery be palpated?

A

visualise a line between the caudal end of facial crest and mandibular condyle and palapate

47
Q

where can the facial artery be palpated?

A

ventral boarder of mandible at the notch mid ramus. Should be able to feel the facial artery and vein crossing from medial to lateral here. Push dorsally on ventral boarder or grip vessel against medial mandible

48
Q

where can the digital artery be palpated?

A

palmerolateral and palmeromedial aspect of the fetlock right down to ungual cartilages

49
Q

where can the apex beat of a horses heart be palpated?

A

palm on left lateral thorax under point of elbow - around the 6th intercostal space

50
Q

where can mucous membranes be checked on the horse?

A

conjunctiva
oral
nasal
vulva

51
Q

what colour are horses oral MM?

A

salmon pink

52
Q

how do MM colours vary within the horse?

A

may be more yellow-pink (conjunctiva) or red (nose) depending on level of body fat and vasculature in the area

53
Q

how long is healthy CRT in the horse?

A

<2 seconds

54
Q

what size should lymph nodes be in the healthy horse?

A

pea to bean size

55
Q

where can equine lymph nodes be palpated?

A

either side of the midline ventral mandible

56
Q

how should equine facial lymph nodes be palpated?

A

stroke the skin from caudal to cranial where they should be felt as a small bump

57
Q

what areas of the horses body will be listened to on auscultation?

A

lungs and trachea
heart
gut

58
Q

should lung sounds be easy to hear on auscultation?

A

no - difficult

59
Q

how many fields should equine lungs be divided into for auscultation?

A

9

60
Q

where are the boundries for auscultation of the equine lungs?

A

caudal to shoulder to 16th rib (avoiding becoming close to tuber coxae)

61
Q

what should be heard when auscultating the heart?

A

clear “lub-dub” sounds

62
Q

what side of the horse should you use for listening to the heart?

A

left and right

63
Q

what is commonly heard at rest in horses when auscultating the heart?

A

dropped beats - second degree heart block

heart murmers

64
Q

where should equine gut sounds be heard?

A

in all quadrants

65
Q

what are gut sounds proportional to?

A

activity that the horse is doing (e.g. reduced with exercise, increased with eating)

66
Q

whereabouts on the abdomen can caecal emptying be heard?

A

right dorsal quadrant

67
Q

what does caecal emptying sound like?

A

toilet flush

68
Q

what is the normal rectal temperature for a horse?

A

37.3 - 38.2

69
Q

is hypothermia often seen in adult horses?

A

no - low values probably due to thermometer issues/open anus

70
Q

are hyperthermia/pyrexia readings in horses likely to be real?

A

yes

71
Q

does a sick horse always have an altered demenour?

A

no - may seen normal

72
Q

what are signs seen often in sick horses?

A
disinterest in surroundings
less reaction to changes
more static (stood sleeping/recumbent)
disengaged with others
*in comparison to normal*
73
Q

describe a commonly seen ‘pain face’ in horses

A
lowered ears (increased distance between ears at the base)
triangulation of eye
tense stare
nostrils medio-laterally dilated
lips pressed together and flattened chin
74
Q

what can be used to assess pain in horses?

A

horse grimace scale

75
Q

how may pain affect a horses whole body?

A

generic pain signs as well as those more specific to the area affected

76
Q

what are the main presenting signs of colic?

A
rolling
looking at flanks
yawning
grinding teeth
stretching
posturing to urinate but not
recumbent
pawing
digging bed
anorexia
inappetant
reduced faecal output
77
Q

what are the main presenting signs of respiratory disease?

A
exercise intolerance
extended head and neck
increased abdominal effort
heave line
flared nostrils
coughing
nasal and occular discharge
enlarged sub-mandibular lymph nodes
epistaxis
78
Q

why may a horse have a productive cough but no discharge seen?

A

they often swallow discharge that is coughed up

79
Q

what are the main presenting signs of liver disease?

A
dull or hyperaesthetic
inappetant
weight loss
jaundice
head pressing
compulsive circling
photosensitization
diarrhoea
80
Q

what are the main presenting signs of dental disease?

A

quidding
weight loss
slow to eat
hallitosis

81
Q

what are the presenting signs of lameness in horses?

A
recumbancy
abnormal posture
resting limb
reluctant to move
slow to move 
lame when moving
poor performance 
changed behaviour during / around exercise
inappetant / sweating - severe or profound lameness only
82
Q

what are some key preventative medicine strategies used to keep horses healthy?

A
vaccination
dentistry
worming
foot care and farriery
fly treatments
BCS 
physio
83
Q

what are the routine core equine vaccines?

A

influenza

tetenus

84
Q

what are the main vaccines given outside of core for stud animals?

A

herpes
rotavirus
equine viral arteritis
equine infectious anaemia

85
Q

what are the main vaccines given outside of core for respiratory diseases?

A
herpes
strep equi (strangles)
86
Q

how is the equine influenza vaccine given?

A

IM

87
Q

describe the correct plan for equine influenza vaccines

A

dose 1: day 0
dose 2: day 21-92 (3 weeks to 3 months)
dose 3: +150-215 days (5-7 months)

88
Q

when must influenza boosters be given according to FEI rules?

A

6 monthly

89
Q

when must equine influenza boosters be given outside of FEI rules?

A

< or on day 365

90
Q

how long after dose 1 of equine influenza vaccine should dose 2 be given?

A

21-92 days (3weeks to 3 months)

91
Q

how long after dose 2 of equine influenza vaccine should dose 3 be given?

A

+150-215 days (5-7 months)

92
Q

how many horses in the UK are vaccinated against equine influenza?

A

around 40%

93
Q

what are the signs of equine influenza?

A

pyrexia
nasal discharge
coughing

94
Q

is equine influenza often fatal?

A

no but can make horses very sick

95
Q

how is the tetanus vaccine given?

A

IM

96
Q

when are the primary tetanus vaccines given?

A

4-6 weeks apart

97
Q

when is the 3rd tetanus vaccine given?

A

1 year after the second

98
Q

when are tetanus boosters given?

A

every 2-3 years after third depending on soil/environment

99
Q

is tetanus contagious?

A

no

100
Q

how is tetanus caused?

A

bacteria in environment enters wound to create toxin locally where it is then absorbed into the circulation for systemic effect

101
Q

what are the signs of tetanus?

A
spastic paralysis
muscular contraction
extended head, neck, spine and elevated tail
flared nostrils
wide open eyes
erect ears
102
Q

why is tetanus uncommon?

A

due to vaccination

103
Q

how often is a routine equine dental exam completed?

A

every 6-12 months in a healthy adult

104
Q

why may the frequency of dental exams increase in the horse?

A

if pathology seen

105
Q

what happens during an equine dental exam?

A

palpate, pick and probe cheek teeth

view with light and mirror

106
Q

what may be done during a routine exam?

A

removal of sharp enamel points

removal of rostral and caudal hooks

107
Q

what dental pathology may there be?

A
diastemata
missing tooth
overgrowth
shear mouth
step mouth
108
Q

how can paddock maintenance aid equine worm reduction?

A

minimise stocking density
maintain consistent populations
poo pick 2x per week
rest and rotate pastures
parasites may survive over winter now due to global warming
larvae can spread from roughs (poo picking essential)
always turn foals out on clen pasture

109
Q

what has reduction is disease risk to horses from worms got to be balanced with?

A

desire to reduce selection pressure

110
Q

how many FWEC may be needed for adult horses between march and sept?

A

3 usually sufficient

111
Q

how often should horses be tested for tapeworm?

A

every 6-12 months

112
Q

what should be given if needed following tapeworm serum/saliva ELISA tests?

A

praziquantil

113
Q

how can efficacy of worming be tested?

A

FWECRT testing annually

114
Q

how many horses are needed for FWECRT testing for resistance to be proved?

A

6-10 horses

115
Q

at what value of eggs per gram will horses be treated for worms?

A

200-250 eggs per gram

116
Q

what will horses with high FWEC be treated with?

A

pyrantel or ivrmectin

117
Q

what worm treatment must new arrivals to a yard be given?

A

moxidectin and praziquantil

118
Q

what test must be taken by new arrivals 10-14 days post worm treatment?

A

FWECRT

119
Q

should horses be turned out when the first arrive?

A

no - kept in for 3 days

120
Q

how should foals be treated for worms?

A

febendazole at 3 and 5 months
FWEC at 7-8 months unless winter
moxidectin over winter

121
Q

what should moxidectin worm treatment be preserved for?

A

larvicidal treatments in autumn / winter in high risk cases only

122
Q

what is the benefit of grooming hospitalised horses?

A

contact time and stimulation to improve wellbeing

time to notice and issues (e.g. skin lesions or behaviour changes)

123
Q

what is the minimum amount of grooming that must take place each day while the horse is hospitalised?

A

pick out feet

124
Q

what must happen to grooming kits between each patient?

A

disinfect between patients

125
Q

why are sponges not often used to groom horses in hospital?

A

fomite

126
Q

what does the decision whether to shoe a horse depend on?

A

growth vs wear
conformation
hoof quality

127
Q

what is provided to horses by shoes?

A

protection - prevention of excess wear
support at heel
traction (studs)
gait alteration if needed

128
Q

how often should horses see the farrier?

A

every 4-8 weeks

Decks in X Clinical Veterinary Nursing Theory Class (70):