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Flashcards in Stable Management Deck (60)
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1
Q

what are the main reasons to stable a horse?

A

protection from various dangers / weathers

to ease management issues and demands

2
Q

where have horses evolved to live?

A

outdoors

3
Q

how do horses find shelter?

A

using their coat
using the herd
using the landscape

4
Q

what are the difficulties associated with turnout of horses?

A

risk of injury

mud - skin issues, harder to clean, poaching fields

5
Q

according to studies how long do horses in the UK spend on average in the stable?

A

22 hours

6
Q

what impacts can stable design have on horse health and welfare?

A

potential for trauma from stable furniture
feed and bedding type can impact resp
stereotypies

7
Q

what is the usual size of a stall?

A

1.7m by 3.3m

8
Q

what is the BHS minimum stable size recommendation for horses?

A

12ftx12ft

9
Q

what is the BHS minimum stable size recommendation for ponies?

A

10ft x 10ft

10
Q

what is the BHS minimum stable size recommendation for foaling boxes?

A

14ft x 14ft

11
Q

what must there be sufficient space in the stable for a horse to do?

A

turn freely

12
Q

what may happen if the stable is too small?

A

injuries

risk of being cast increases

13
Q

what is the BHS minimum stable size recommendation for donkeys?

A

10ft x 10ft

14
Q

what companions should donkeys be kept with?

A

at least in pairs

15
Q

why do donkeys require covered space?

A

desert animals who do not have waterproof coats

16
Q

what space is needed for 2 average sized donkeys?

A

9 sq metres of covered space

17
Q

describe ideal positioning of the stable block

A

upwind or avoiding dust sources (e.g. grain stores/muck heap)
trees can provide shelter but be aware of leaves
south facing for sunlight in winter
shelter from prevailing wind
avoid steep slopes

18
Q

what is the ideal doorway width for stables?

A

1.2m by 2.4m

19
Q

what is the benefit of half doors on stables?

A

ventilation

20
Q

how can the stable be drained?

A

slight slope to floor
drainage grooves
keep drains clear

21
Q

where should hay nets be positioned?

A

in air outflow not inflow to reduce dust

22
Q

why should horses be fed from the floor?

A

stimulation of respiratory tract mucous drainage

pollens and dusts are left at floor level while horse lifts his head to chew

23
Q

what is the benefit of sunlight in stabling?

A

provides UV light which can help kill bacteria, viruses and fungi

24
Q

why may lighting be manipulated to increase daylight hours?

A

to bring mares into oestrus early in the season

25
Q

what is evidence of poor stable ventilation?

A

cobwebs

26
Q

are horses often hypothermic?

A

unlikely in a well fed, rugged individual

27
Q

where does most of the heat produced by a horse come from?

A

mid gut fermentation

28
Q

what may increase a horses external heat requirement?

A

if stabled as static

if clipped

29
Q

in what animals is generalised hypothermia most likely?

A
neonates
young stock
geriatric
sick
malnourished
30
Q

what type of hypothermia is more commonly seen in horses?

A

local or regional chilling of extremities (e.g. limbs or head)

31
Q

when is local chilling of limbs particularly significant?

A

before scintigraphy

32
Q

why will local chilling of limbs affect scintigraphy?

A

perfusion will be reduced which reduces distribution and so uptake of isotope

33
Q

how can local chilling of horses be prevented?

A

bandages and rugs

34
Q

what is the main role of bedding for horses?

A

cushioning and comfort as well as absorbent

35
Q

what does bedding choice depend on?

A
preference
cost effectiveness
local availability
time maintaining
type of horse
dust levels
36
Q

what are the 2 main stable pollutants?

A

dust

ammonia

37
Q

why is dust a stable pollutant?

A

irritates

allergens (e.g. mould, pollen, mite excrement)

38
Q

how can you reduce dust in the stables?

A

use quality forage/bedding
soaking forage
muck out without the horse in the stable

39
Q

how is ammonia produced?

A

bacteria breakdown faeces / urine

40
Q

what are the issues with ammonia?

A

local irritation and reduction in mucocilliary clearance

41
Q

how can ammonia be reduced?

A

used absorbent bedding and muck out frequently

42
Q

why should the bed be lifted and floor allowed to dry regularly when mucking out?

A

reduces ammonia

reduces mold formation

43
Q

where should a soaked hay net be located?

A

over drain

44
Q

what are the issues with deep litter bedding?

A

build up of ammonia likely
all bedding needs to be removed at intervals which is intense
risk of thrush from damp bedding

45
Q

how should the horses respiratory system be managed when stabled?

A

feed from floor
soak/steam haylage/hay if dusty
hang hay net at air outlet
provide quality bedding and muck out daily
remove horse from stable before mucking out
ventilation is key!!
stable as little as possible

46
Q

what is involved in the stable management of hospitalised patients?

A

deep bed / rubber matting
muck out fully daily and skip out 2-3 times
completely disinfect stable between patients
muck heap kept far away from stables

47
Q

why are deep beds crucial for hospitalised patients?

A

often recumbent
reduces trauma
clean if mucked out daily

48
Q

describe hospital isolation facilities for horses

A

distant and downwind from other horses
own equipment (labelled or distinct colour)
PPE worn
Dirty bedding treated as clinical waste
completely empty, disinfect and test between patients

49
Q

how long dog horses normally forage for per day?

A

18 hours

50
Q

what sort of grazer are horses?

A

selective, continuous of mixed types

51
Q

what are the golden rules of horse feeding?

A
fresh water at all times
forage should form most of diet
feed little and often
avoid sudden diet changes
keep the same routine
allow time between concentrate and exercise
52
Q

what percentage of diet should be made up by forage?

A

50% at least

53
Q

what may be required by a horse who is fed at grass?

A

hard feed (small)
balancer
supplementary forage

54
Q

how should stabled horses be fed?

A

ad lib forage (best from floor)

supplemented with concentrates

55
Q

how long should patients be starved before surgery?

A

2hr pre op

56
Q

how may feeding needs alter in the hospitalized patient?

A

energy demands will increase with healing

57
Q

how can patient energy needs be monitored?

A

weigh regularly - on arrival and then daily/weekly

58
Q

how should cross tied patients be fed?

A

supervised meals from floor to allow them to lower their heads

59
Q

what is the essential daily grooming task?

A

pick out hooves

60
Q

how may fly exposure in horses be managed?

A

topical repellent spray/cream
rugs
fly fringe/masks

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