Imported Infections of Dogs and Cats Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Imported Infections of Dogs and Cats Deck (124)
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1
Q

what is the main cause of a rapid change in disease distribution between countries?

A

international travel of humans and animals

2
Q

what has had a key influence on animal international travel rules?

A

risk assessment for rabies and other imported diseases

3
Q

what is the aim of the PETS scheme?

A

protection of the UK from disease

4
Q

will pet insurance necessarily cover exotic disease?

A

no

5
Q

what may cause legislation changes for pets travelling in and out of the UK?

A

brexit

6
Q

what do all pets (dogs, cats and ferrets) need before entry into the UK?

A

pet passport
microchipping
vaccination against rabies

7
Q

who must pets travel with when entering the UK?

A

approved transport company on an authorised route

8
Q

when should microchipping and rabies vaccine happen?

A

at the same time to ensure there is record of the rabies vaccine

9
Q

what is the minimum age for rabies vaccine?

A

12 weeks

10
Q

what must happen if rabies boosters elapse?

A

process must be restarted

11
Q

what are the rabies requirements for entry to the UK from EU or listed 3rd country?

A

rabies vaccine
wait 21 days
then able to enter UK

12
Q

what are the rabies requirements for entry to the UK from a non-listed 3rd country?

A

rabies vaccine
30 days later blood sample to ensure presence of rabies antibodies
wait 3 months
entry to UK allowed

13
Q

what must the rabies antibody blood concentration be following vaccine?

A

> 0.5 iu

14
Q

what is the tapeworm requirement for entry to the UK?

A

1-5 days before returning to UK

administered by vet and signed in passport

15
Q

who must administer tapeworm treatment required to enter UK?

A

vet

16
Q

what countries can you return to the UK from without tapeworm treatment?

A

finland
ireland
malta

17
Q

why is tapeworm treatment prior to entry to the UK required?

A

public health importance associated with Echinococcus multicularis

18
Q

what drug is usually given to treat Echinococcus multicularis before entry into the UK?

A

Praziquantil

19
Q

what used to be a legal requirement for treatment before return to the UK but is now just strongly advised?

A

acaricide (anti tick) treatment

20
Q

why was tick treatment required before re-entry to the UK?

A

prevention of transmission of tick-borne disease into the UK

21
Q

what should you strongly advise owners to provide prophylaxis for during travel?

A

ticks
sandflies
mosquitoes

22
Q

what should you find out about a country to ensure you can advise owners on correct treatment / prophylaxis?

A

diseases and vectors in destination country

23
Q

what website is useful for showing resident diseases and vectors?

A

ESCCAP

24
Q

how can ticks be managed while abroad?

A

daily check and remove
long lasting oral tablets (1-3 months)
spot on products
long acting collars

25
Q

what ingredient in anti tick treatment should not be used on cats or in a cat household?

A

deltametherin

26
Q

why may daily removal of ticks prevent disease transmission?

A

takes 36-48 hours for tick to pass on disease

27
Q

how can flies/mosquitoes be managed by owners during traveling?

A
house animals indoors during dawn and dusk
fine mesh screens
insect repellants
collars
spot on
28
Q

what causes leishmaniosis?

A

Leishmania infantum

29
Q

what sort of organism is Leishmania infantum?

A

intracellular protozoan parasite

30
Q

how is Leishmania infantum transmitted?

A

vector borne - sandflies

31
Q

what is the vector for transmission of Leishmania infantum?

A

sandflies

32
Q

where is Leishmania infantum endemic?

A

southern europe
middle east
eastern america (north and south)

33
Q

where is there a large reservoir of Leishmania infantum?

A

in dogs

34
Q

what dogs is Leismaniosis seen in?

A

traveled dogs - very rare in untraveled

35
Q

what parts of the body are affected by Leishmaniosis?

A

multisystemic

36
Q

how long is the incubation period of Leishmaniosis?

A

years

37
Q

is Leishmaniosis zoonotic?

A

yes

38
Q

what are the typical clinical findings in a dog with Leishmaniosis?

A

patchy alopecia - especially on the head
non-pruritic crusting lesions
ulceration
inflammatory changes of the eye e.g. uveitis

39
Q

what are the 2 stages of disease with Leishmaniosis?

A

subclinical infection

clinical disease

40
Q

what happens during sub-clinical infection with Leishmaniosis?

A

no signs - animal is healthy

41
Q

how long can leishmaniosis clinical disease last?

A

chronic and gradually progressive

42
Q

what can be the long term outcome of Leishmaniosis?

A

severe life limiting complications

43
Q

what are the main signs of Leishmaniosis?

A

dermatological lesions

enlarged lymph nodes and spleen (due to immune response and infection)

44
Q

what are the main secondary complications of Leishmaniosis?

A

kidney, joint and eye disease

but any organ can be affected

45
Q

why are kidneys, eyes and joints often affected by Leishmaniosis?

A

antibody - Leishmania infantum complexes are formed which will collect in these areas

46
Q

what are the general systemic signs of Leishmaniosis?

A

lethargy
inappetance
pyrexia

47
Q

what are the 3 main ways that Leishmaniosis is diagnosed?

A

cytology / histopathology - depending on sample
PCR
serology

48
Q

what samples may be used for cytology / histopathology to diagnose Leishmaniosis?

A

lymph node aspirates
conjunctival swabs
other tissues - any can be affected

49
Q

what will PCR for Leishmaniosis be performed on?

A

cytology / histology samples

50
Q

what is indicated by serology for Leishmaniosis?

A

indicates exposure or prior vaccination

51
Q

how is Leishmaniosis treated in the first month after diagnosis?

A
daily meglumine antimonate (SQ) or miltefosine (oral liquid)
and allopurinol (daily tablets)
52
Q

what is a special import certificate (STC) required for to treat Leishmaniosis?

A

meglumine antimonate (SQ) and miltefosine (oral liquid)

53
Q

how long are allopurinol tablets given to treat Leishmaniosis?

A

6-12 months

54
Q

aside from drug therapy for Leishmaniosis what else is involved in it’s treatment?

A

regular monitoring

treatment of complications

55
Q

what is the aim of Leishmaniosis treatment?

A

clinical improvement as elimination of the organism is rare

56
Q

what are the main methods of prevention of Leishmaniosis?

A

don’t travel!
vector control - sandflies
Leisguard
vaccination

57
Q

what does Leisguard do?

A

supports and stimulates immune system to aid overcoming Leishmaniosis

58
Q

does the Leishmania vaccination prevent disease?

A

no

59
Q

what dogs should ideally not be vaccinated against Leishmaniosis?

A

previously exposed or infected dogs

60
Q

where are most Leishmania vaccines given?

A

endemic areas

61
Q

what is the name of the Leishmania vaccine?

A

CaniLeish

62
Q

what are the 3 main tick borne diseases?

A

Babesia spp
Ehrlichia spp
Anaplasma spp

63
Q

what are the 2 disease found on exotic ticks?

A

Babesia spp

Ehrlichia spp

64
Q

what tick borne diseases are typically found in traveled dogs?

A

Babesia spp

Ehrlichia spp

65
Q

what tick borne disease is found in the UK?

A

Anaplasma spp

66
Q

how are tick borne diseases distributed?

A

vector - tick

67
Q

what tick species is endemic in the UK?

A

Ixodes ricinus

68
Q

where is the most common area of the cat and dog to find ticks?

A

head

69
Q

what 2 tick borne diseases are from the same family?

A

Anaplasma spp

Ehrlichia spp

70
Q

what sort of organisms are Anaplasma spp and Ehrlichia spp?

A

intracellular bacteria

71
Q

what family are Anaplasma spp and Ehrlichia spp from?

A

Anaplasmataceae

72
Q

what cells are specifically targeted by Anaplasma spp and Ehrlichia spp?

A

neutrophils
platelets
monocytes

73
Q

of dogs and cats who is affected more by Anaplasma spp and Ehrlichia spp?

A

dogs

74
Q

where are Anaplasma spp and Ehrlichia spp bacteria found in the world?

A
the americas
europe
asia
africa
australia (not Ehrlichia spp)
75
Q

what can infection with Anaplasma spp and Ehrlichia spp range between?

A

asymptomatic carriage to severe clinical disease

76
Q

what is mainly caused by Anaplasma spp and Ehrlichia spp?

A

Thrombocytopenia

77
Q

what other symptoms aside from thrombocytopenia can be caused by Ehrlichia spp?

A

pancytopenia (low WBC and RBC as well as platelets)

severe multi-systemic disease

78
Q

how is Anaplasma spp and Ehrlichia spp infection diagnosed?

A

cytology
PCR
serology for antibodies

79
Q

what test is used to check for Anaplasma spp and Ehrlichia spp in serum?

A

in clinic ELISA

80
Q

what diseases are tested for on a SNAP 4DX test?

A

Anaplasma Ab
Ehrlichia Ab
Borrelia Ab
Dirofilaria Ag

81
Q

how is Anaplasma spp and Ehrlichia spp treated?

A

Doxycycline (2-4 weeks)

tick control

82
Q

what is the prognosis for Anaplasma spp infection?

A

good

83
Q

what is the prognosis for Ehrlichia spp infection?

A

guarded if chronic

84
Q

what sort of organism is Babesia?

A

intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite

85
Q

what are the 2 types of babesia spp?

A

large and small

86
Q

where can babesia spp be caught from?

A

tick bourne
iatrogenic (transfusions)
dog fighting

87
Q

what is the range of severity of babesia spp infection?

A

subclinical to severe acute life-limiting illness

88
Q

where in the world are babesia spp bacteria found?

A

globally distributed - cluster of cases in Essex, 2016

89
Q

which animals are most affected by Babesiosis?

A

dogs - cats are rarely affected

90
Q

what are the clinical features of Babesiosis?

A

haemolytic anaemia
thrombocytopenia
splenomegaly
multi-organ failure and death

91
Q

why does babesia spp cause haemolytic anaemia?

A

rupture of RBC due to parasite and immune mediated destruction

92
Q

what may be seen alongside haemolytic anaemia in babesia spp patients?

A

pigmenturia

jaundice

93
Q

how is babesia spp diagnosed?

A

cytology - blood smear assessment
PCR
serology

94
Q

what does the drug of choice for treatment of babesia spp depend on?

A

species of babesia

95
Q

what may be given alongside drug of choice for babesia spp treatment?

A

suportive management e.g. blood transfusions

96
Q

how can babesia spp infection be prevented?

A

tick control

97
Q

what is Dirofilaria immitis?

A

heartworm

98
Q

where in the world is Diofilaria immitis often found?

A

southern europe
asia
australia
the americas

99
Q

in what animals are Diofilaria immitis found most often?

A

dogs

100
Q

what does Diofilaria immitis cause most often in dogs?

A

right sided heart disease

101
Q

why does Diofilaria immitis cause right sided heart disease?

A

blockage of pulmonary arteries

102
Q

describe the lifecycle of Diofilaria immitis

A

L1 in circulation
mosquito bites and picks L1 up
L1-L3 takes place in mosquito
L3 is then infective and passed on when mosquito bites other dogs
L3-L5 molts occur within the dog
L5 - vascular migration occurs to pulmonary artery
L5 matures and grows in PA - may mate and produce microfilariae (L1)

103
Q

what is the lifespan of L1 microfilariae in the blood?

A

up to 30 months

104
Q

how long does the Diofilaria immitis molt from L1-L3 in the mosquito take?

A

1-3 weeks

105
Q

where is the L3 infective strain placed into the dog when the carrier mosquito bites?

A

sub cutaneous

106
Q

how long does the molt of Diofilaria immitis from L3-L5 take in the SQ tissues of the dog?

A

2-3 months

107
Q

when does heart worm disease begin?

A

when worms are at L5 (1-2cm) and begin vascular migration from SQ tissues

108
Q

how long can mature L5 Diofilaria immitis reach?

A

15-30 cm

109
Q

how long does it take from L3 infection after mosquito bite to grown L5 in pulmonary artery?

A

7-9 months

110
Q

what is the lifespan of adult Diofilaria immitis?

A

5-7 years

111
Q

what is produced when male and female Diofilaria immitis mate within PA?

A

microfilaemic (L1)

112
Q

where are L5 Diofilaria immitis found?

A

pulmonary artery system

113
Q

what are the signs of Diofilaria immitis?

A
asymptomatic carriage or 
exercise intolerance
coughing
dyspnoea
tachypnoea
lathargy
114
Q

what is caval syndrome?

A

extreme fluid retention particularly around the face due to blockage of the cranial vena cava and right heart because of Diofilaria immitis

115
Q

how can Diofilaria immitis be diagnosed?

A

microfilarial/L1 detection through blood smear
ELISA in clinic for adult female Ag
imaging

116
Q

what are ELISAs for Diofilaria immitis diagnosis looking for?

A

adult female antigens

117
Q

what sort of imaging may be used to diagnose Diofilaria immitis?

A

chest x ray

ultrasound

118
Q

how is Diofilaria immitis treated?

A

specialist veterinary cardiologist
drugs to kill adult worms (L5) and microfilariae (L1)
may require surgical removal

119
Q

what treatment may be required for severe Diofilaria immitis infection?

A

surgical reterival

120
Q

what are patients with Diofilaria immitis at high risk of?

A

thromboembolytic events / death

121
Q

how is Diofilaria immitis prevented in endemic countries?

A
monthly prevention
vector management (mosquitoes)
122
Q

how does monthly prevention of Diofilaria immitis work?

A

arrests L3/L4 development

123
Q

when should Diofilaria immitis preventative treatment be started?

A

1 month before travel

124
Q

what will the other infectious and vector borne diseases depend on?

A

the parts of the world the patient is traveling to

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