Exotic Practice and Zoonosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exotic Practice and Zoonosis Deck (70)
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1
Q

what animals are classed as exotic pets?

A

small furries (rabbits and guinea pigs)

birds

reptiles

amphibians

fish

2
Q

what animals must be treated by all veterinary surgeons?

A

obligation to offer first aid treatment to any animal presented at the surgery

3
Q

what animals are most practices happy to see?

A

rabbits and guinea pigs

budgies and cockitiels

small rodents

4
Q

what animals may be occasionally seen in exotic practice?

A

tortoises

ferrets

chinchillas

5
Q

what animals will most practices choose to refer?

A

lizards and snakes

parrots

birds of prey

fish

6
Q

when can a vet be classed as an exotic specialist?

A

if they have a diploma or are a recognised fellow

7
Q

what sort of exotic vets are there?

A

some practices have one vet that is interested in one or more exotic species

specialist exotic practices with 24hr on call specialists and nurses

8
Q

what are the difficulties of having one vet at the practice with exotic interest/experience?

A

difficulty if out of hours, on call and holidays

9
Q

what is the issue with specialist exotic practices?

A

expensive

10
Q

how long is needed to perform an adequate exotic consult?

A

at least 20 mins, preferably 30

11
Q

why do exotic procedures need to be so long?

A

Thorough history is vital and may be time consuming

Often need to do diagnostic procedures i.e. faecal samples

May need to consult literature

12
Q

what can make an exotic case run more smoothly?

A

Good management of the exotic case at reception can make things run much more smoothly.

13
Q

what role can reception have in exotic consults?

A

Find out the species of animal to be seen.

Advise on transport of animal

Request feacal samples

Advise owner to bring in food, supplements and photos of environment.

Pre consult questionnaire

14
Q

how should rabbits and rodents be transported?

A

secure box or carrier

15
Q

how should reptiles be transported?

A

secure box or carrier

provide heating (e.g. hot water bottle or plug in heat mat)

16
Q

how will snakes be transported?

A

pillow case or duvet cover

17
Q

how should birds be transported to the practice?

A

cage is best, avoid cardboard box as cannot see what the bird is doing and they are difficult to remove

18
Q

how are birds of prey transported?

A

travel box or on hand

19
Q

how should fish be transported?

A

double bag in a waterproof box

ensure air in the top to allow gas exchange

bring second bag of water

20
Q

where should birds be housed?

A

heated tank (30 degrees)

21
Q

where should reptiles be housed?

A

vivarium or tortoise table that can provide light and heat

22
Q

where should rabbits be housed?

A

away from predators below 22 degrees

23
Q

what is crucial about all exotic housing?

A

secure as they are good at escaping

24
Q

what else needs to be included in exotic housing?

A

water

food

toys

25
Q

what equipment is needed when seeing exotic patients?

A
  • Good Microscope
  • Crop tubes / stomach tubes
  • Fine surgical instruments
    • Ventilator, endoscopy, magnification all useful
26
Q

how should the consult room be set up for exotic

A
  • Secure area. No open doors/windows/air-vents
  • Containers for examining small animals
  • Sensitive scales
27
Q

what must happen to rooms after exotic animals have been in?

A

through disinfection

fogging?

28
Q

what disinfectant is best for use after exotics have been on the ward?

A

QAC

29
Q

when do exotic animals tend to present with illness?

A

late on when they are already ill

30
Q

how quickly do birds deteriorate?

A

Birds will deteriorate quickly – any sick bird should be treated as an emergency

31
Q

how long does it take reptiles to deteriorate and recover?

A

Reptiles deteriorate slowly – but will take long time to recover

32
Q

what is involved in the first aid of exotics?

A
  • ABC – Airway, breathing, circulation.
  • Stop and haemorrhage
  • Warmth for Birds (30oC) and reptiles (POTZ)
  • Oxygen supplementation if needed (Not reptiles)
  • Rehydration
  • Pain relief
  • Antibiosis
33
Q

why should reptiles not be given oxygen?

A

may actually stop them from breathing

34
Q

what zoonoses are seen in reptiles?

A
  • Salmonella
  • Campylobacter
  • ?Cryptosporidia
  • Pentastomids
35
Q

what zoonoses are seen in birds?

A
  • Chlamydophila
  • Salmonella
  • Mycobacteria
  • Avian infuenza
36
Q

what zoonoses are seen in small mammals?

A
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis
  • Salmonella
  • Streptobacillus moniliformis – rat bite fever
  • Dermatophytosis (ringworm)
  • Encephalitozoon Cuniculi
37
Q

what zoonosis are seen in fish?

A
  • Mycobacterium marinum
38
Q

what species carry salmonella?

A

potentially carried by a range but reptiles are of particular concern

39
Q

what does salmonella cause in humans?

A

GI upsets but can lead to septecemia

40
Q

how is salmonella transmitted to humans?

A

shed in faeces - only stopped by antibiotics for a short period

41
Q

what sort of bacteria is Chlamydophila ?

A

intracellular

42
Q

what animals is Chlamydophila carried by?

A

a range of bird especially pigeons and small parrots

43
Q

how is Chlamydophila transmitted?

A

bodily secretions, faeces, feather dust, sneezing.

44
Q

what will Chlamydophila affected birds present with?

A

systemic disease signs: lethargy, anorexia, and ruffled feathers

Other symptoms include ocular or nasal discharge, diarrhoea, and excretion of green urates (liver disease)

can be symptomless carrier and shed periodically

45
Q

what does Chlamydophila cause in humans?

A

severe flu like symptoms (Fever, muscle and joint pains, non- productive cough, tight chest). If left untreated may be fatal.

can be treated with antibiotics

46
Q

how is Chlamydophila tested for?

A
  • Pooled Feacal sample or Swab (Conjunctiva, choana (top of mouth) and cloaca) for DNA PCR,
  • Antibody blood test.
47
Q

how can Chlamydophila be treated?

A

antibiotics in birds (doxycycline) and humans but infection difficult to clear in birds

48
Q

how can Chlamydophila be prevented from passing to humans?

A
  • Wash hands well after handling, don’t kiss/ take food from bird’s mouth.
  • Don’t eat with the bird present.
  • Quarantine new birds, testing does not guarantee disease free.
  • May be advisable to wear masks when handling an infected bird.
49
Q

what is fish tuberculosis known as?

A

Mycobacterium spp

50
Q

what are the symptoms of Mycobacterium spp?

A
  • Local non healing ulcers
  • Reduced appetite, weight loss, body deformities
51
Q

what does Mycobacterium spp cause in humans?

A

Cause localised lesions

52
Q

how can Mycobacterium spp be prevented in humans?

A
  • If open wounds - then cover with a waterproof bandage and gloves
  • Wash hands well
  • Do not wash nets and equipment in sinks intended for human use
53
Q

what type of infection is Dermatophytosis (ringworm)?

A

fungal infection

54
Q

how is Dermatophytosis (ringworm) spread?

A

contact

55
Q

how can Dermatophytosis (ringworm) be prevented?

A
  • Wear gloves if suspected.
  • Wash hands well after handling (Especially Hedgehogs)
56
Q

what does Dermatophytosis (ringworm) cause?

A

Causes scaly itchy patches often but not always circular in appearance

57
Q

how is euthanasia of most exotic species performed?

A

gaseous anaesthesia and then injection

58
Q

how is euthanasia performed in exotic mammals?

A

IV or into liver/kidney

59
Q

how is euthanasia performed in rabbits?

A

ear vein

60
Q

how is euthanasia performed in rodents and ferrets?

A

cranial vena cava

61
Q

how is euthanasia performed in reptiles?

A

IV and then pith (damage brain with probe /needle)

62
Q

how is euthanasia performed in snakes?

A

intracardiac or into liver

63
Q

how is euthanasia performed in lizards?

A

tail vein or cranial vena cava in small species

64
Q

how is euthanasia performed in chelonia?

A

jugular or subcarapacial sinus

65
Q

how is euthanasia performed in birds?

A

Gaseous anaesthesia then intravenous jugular or tibiotarsal vein in larger birds. Can inject into liver.

66
Q

how is euthanasia performed in fish?

A

Anaesthesia (MS222 or phenoxyethanol) followed by pentobarbitone injection or severing spinal cord behind gill cover. Owner can use oil of cloves to anesthetise if needed at home.

67
Q

what is a zoonosis?

A

infectious disease which has jumped form non human animal to humans, may be bacterial, viral or parasitic

68
Q

what are the symptoms of salmonella in animals?

A

Don’t usually cause illness

69
Q

What are the symptoms of salmonella in humans?

A

Diarrhoea, abdominal cramps and fever

Can lead to fatal illness if young or immuno compromised

70
Q

how is Chlamydophila transmitted to humans?

A

Inhaling of respiratory secretions or contaminated dust from the droppings or feathers of infected birds.

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