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Flashcards in Blood Transfusion Deck (133)
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1
Q

what changes have the RCVS made to make blood products widely available for primary care small animal practitioners?

A

taking of blood from healthy donors with the permission of the owner with the intention of passing it to a recipient with immediate or anticipated need
VMD licensed blood banks

2
Q

what blood products are available for dogs in the UK?

A
whole blood
packed red blood cells (PRBCs)
fresh frozen plasma
frozen plasma
cryoprecipitate
cryoprecipitate poor plasma
3
Q

what blood products are available for cats in the UK?

A

no feline per blood banks

whole blood can be obtained locally

4
Q

how can whole blood be obtained for cats?

A

locally via:
local donor colonies
cats of consenting colleagues, clients, friends and family
donors from local animal register

5
Q

why can more be done with canine blood than with feline blood?

A

canine blood can be collected in advance and so can be processed much more easily
this enables it to help more patients

6
Q

what is produced by a hard spin in a centrifuge of whole blood?

A
packed RBC (precipitate)
fresh frozen plasma (supernatant)
7
Q

what is fresh whole blood?

A

blood used within 6 hours of collection

8
Q

what is found within fresh whole blood?

A

physiological concentrations of RBC
some functional platelets
proteins
coagulation factors

9
Q

how must fresh whole blood be stored?

A

at room temp

10
Q

what is the PCV of fresh whole blood?

A

~40% (as normal)

11
Q

what is stored whole blood?

A

blood over 8 hours old

12
Q

how can stored whole blood be stored?

A

2-6 degrees C

up to 21 days

13
Q

what is found in stored whole blood?

A

no functional platelets

loss of labile clotting factors

14
Q

what are labile clotting factors?

A

factor 8

VWF

15
Q

how are packed red blood cells separated from plasma?

A

by centrifugation

16
Q

what is the PCV of packed red blood cells?

A

higher than that of whole blood (70-80%)

17
Q

how should PRBCs be stored?

A

2-6 degrees C

42 days

18
Q

how is fresh frozen plasma stored?

A

-18 degrees

less than 1 year

19
Q

what is found in fresh frozen plasma?

A

all coagulation factors (including labile)

physiological concentrations of albumin and other plasma proteins

20
Q

what is frozen plasma?

A

FFP that is >1 year old or that has been thawed and refrozen either intentionally or by accident

21
Q

what is found in frozen plasma?

A

stable coagulation factors

labile factors lost

22
Q

how is FP stored?

A

below -18 degrees for up to 5 years

23
Q

ho is cryoprecipitate made?

A

by slowly and partially thawing FFP which is then centrifuged again
cryoprecipitate is collected from second centrifugation

24
Q

what is found in cryoprecipitate?

A

fibrinogen
VIII
vWF
(labile clotting factors)

25
Q

what patients may benefit from transfusion therapy?

A

those with diseases that result in a deficiency of a blood constituent may benefit from transfusion

26
Q

what are some examples of diseases which may benefit from transfusion therapy?

A
hypovolaemic anaemia (e.g. blood loss)
euvolaemic anaemia (e.g. IMHA)
coagulopathies (e.g. rodenticide toxicity)
27
Q

is transfusion therapy helpful for thrombocytopenia, thrombopathia or hypoalbuminaemia?

A

unclear
it is often tried but expensive and rarely effective in curing the problem
volume overload is likely before issue is corrected

28
Q

when are blood products indicated for anaemic patients?

A

if there are clinical signs of anaemia (i.e. patient is not compensating for the anaemia)

29
Q

is the decision to use blood products based on PCV values alone?

A

no

30
Q

what are the clinical signs of anaemia?

A

weakness
tachycardia
tachypnoea
indirect measures of poor oxygen delivery (e.g. high blood lactate)

31
Q

what product is the ideal one to use for transfusion?

A

most closely replaces that which is missing

32
Q

what is the benefit of using the blood product that most closely replaces that which is missing?

A

reduces the likelihood of transfusion complications

allows blood products to be used most effectively

33
Q

when does blood type need to be considered?

A

if giving whole blood or PRBCs

34
Q

how are antibodies for RBC acquired in dogs?

A

may be naturally occurring or acquired through previous sensitisation

35
Q

how do dogs gain antibodies to RBC through sensitisation?

A

due to a previous blood transfusion

36
Q

what happens if the recipients RBC antibodies match antigens on the donor RBC?

A

immune response leading to immune mediated transfusion reaction

37
Q

what are the signs of transfusion reaction?

A
fever
tachycardia
dyspnoea
muscle tremors
vomiting
weakness
collapse
haemoglobinemia
haemoglobinuria
38
Q

what is the name of the dog erythrocyte antigen?

A

DEA

39
Q

wat are the types of DEA that can be found by labs?

A

1, 3, 4, 5 and 7

40
Q

within each type of DEA what types are there?

A

positive and negative

41
Q

what is the most antigenic DEA?

A

DEA 1 - most concerning and most common cause of immune mediated transfusion reaction

42
Q

what is the only DEA we can type for in clinical practice?

A

DEA 1

43
Q

do dogs possess naturally occurring antibodies to DEA 1?

A

no

44
Q

describe the RBC of a DEA1 positive dog

A

RBC possesses DEA1 antigen

45
Q

describe the RBC of a DEA1 negative dog

A

RBC does not possess DEA1 antigen nor does it’s plasma contain any anti-DEA1 alloantibodies

46
Q

what are the other main canine blood types?

A

Dal (positive and negative)

47
Q

what Dal blood type do most dogs have?

A

positive

48
Q

what dogs are Dal negative?

A

dalmations

49
Q

can Dal be typed for in house?

A

no

50
Q

if giving dalmatians a blood transfusion where should it come from?

A

ideally from another dalmatian or they need to be cross matched

51
Q

are there any other blood types in dogs apart from Dal and DEA?

A

yes but not clinically relevant

52
Q

what blood should DEA1 negative dogs receive?

A

only DEA1 negative

53
Q

what blood should DEA1 positive dogs receive?

A

either 1 positive or negative

54
Q

what blood type can be given to dogs in their first transfusion?

A

un-typed blood can be given in the first transfusion

55
Q

why can un-typed blood be given to dogs on their first transfusion?

A

they do not possess naturally occurring alloantibodies

56
Q

can reactions still be seen after a dogs first blood transfusion?

A

yes - delayed

57
Q

what blood can be given to an un-typed canine patient in an emergency?

A

DEA1 negative

58
Q

why should DEA1 blood be given sparingly?

A

risk of shortages

59
Q

what should be collected from the patient prior to emergency transfusion?

A

blood sample

60
Q

why does a blood sample need to be collected before transfusion?

A

allows for more accurate blood typing as this is not possible after transfusion

61
Q

describe the RBC and plasma of ‘sensitised’ DEA1 negative dogs

A

RBC doesn’t possess DEA1 antigen but it’s plasma does contain anti-DEA1 antibodies

62
Q

what happens if a DEA1 negative dog is exposed to DEA1 positive blood?

A

over the course of a few days it will develop anti-DEA1 antibodies
shortens lifespan of transfused RBC

63
Q

what happens if a dog with anti-DEA1 antibodies is exposed to DEA-1 positive blood for a second time?

A

it will have a transfusion reaction

64
Q

what can happen during subsequent transfusions even if there has been blood typing and appropriate transfusion?

A

can still lead to reactions due to sensitisation to the remaining DEAs or other RBC antigens

65
Q

what is required before subsequent transfusions?

A

cross matching

66
Q

what are the blood types found in cats?

A

A
B
AB

67
Q

do cats have naturally occurring alloantibodies?

A

yes - present in the plasma

68
Q

does antibody formation in cats require previous exposure through transfusion or pregnancy?

A

no

69
Q

what can cat antibodies cause?

A

fatal transfusion reactions upon first transfusion and are also responsible for neonatal isoerthrolysis

70
Q

what other blood types exist in cats?

A

those that cannot be routinely tested for (e.g. Mik)

71
Q

describe the RBC and plasma of a type A cat

A

RBC has A surface antigen

plasma contains anti -B alloantibodies (weak and low in number)

72
Q

describe the RBC and plasma of a type B cat

A

RBC possesses B surface antigen

plasma contains lots of anti-A antibodies

73
Q

describe the RBC and plasma of a type AB cat

A

RBC possesses both A and B surface antigens

have no antibodies against either antigen in plasma

74
Q

what blood should cats be given?

A

that which matches their blood type

75
Q

what blood can be given to type AB cats?

A

AB preferably

if not available type A is the next best choice as it contains low anti-B antibodies

76
Q

do all donors and recipients of blood transfusions in cats need to be typed?

A

yes - even in an emergency or on first transfusion as transfusion mismatches can be fatal

77
Q

describe how a transfusion reaction may occur in a cat

A

type B cat is exposed to type A blood. Naturally occurring alloantibodies will trigger severe transfusion reaction
this does not require a history of prior exposure or sensitisation

78
Q

what effect can subsequent transfusions have in cats regardless of appropriate transfusion or blood typing?

A

can still lead to reaction due to sensitisation against RBC antigens outside the A-B blood group system

79
Q

what is cross matching used for?

A

to determine serological compatibility between patient and donor

80
Q

what are you looking for during cross matching?

A

agglutination which indicates the animals blood types are incompatible

81
Q

what are the 2 tests included in cross matching?

A

major crossmatch

minor crossmatch

82
Q

what is included in a major crossmatch test?

A

recipients serum and donors RBC

83
Q

what is included in a minor crossmatch?

A

donors serum and recipients RBC

84
Q

when should crossmatching be performed?

A

if the recipient has had a transfusion more than 4 days ago
there is a history of transfusion reaction
recipients transfusion history is unknown
recipient has been previously pregnant
ideally all feline transfusions (especially if no blood typing)
dalmations

85
Q

how can blood products be obtained?

A

from blood banks
practices enrolled in share schemes
local collection

86
Q

what else can often be provided by pet blood banks or share schemes?

A

collection and processing services

equipment needed for transfusion that isn’t regularly held in practice

87
Q

what are the qualities required for a good canine or feline donor?

A
should be healthy
generally between 1 and 8 years
no history of travel
receiving routine preventative health care
never have received a transfusion
good jugular veins
88
Q

what are the specific qualities required for a good canine donor?

A

large (>25kg)
well tempered
clear disease screens

89
Q

what are the specific qualities required for a good feline donor?

A
large (>4kg)
BCS 4-6
blood typed
clear disease screen foe FIV, FeLV, mycoplasma haemofelis
ideally indoor
90
Q

what is involved in the blood donation process?

A

clinical history and full physical exam to confirm good health
blood sample taken
clip hair from area over both jugular veins and apply EMLA
clean and prep the area for aseptic technique
use an anticoagulant at the correct ratio

91
Q

what should a patients blood sample be checked for before blood donation?

A
PCV
TS
hematology
biochemistry
typing
infectious disease screen
92
Q

can cats and dogs donate conscious?

A

dogs should be able to and any that couldn’t maybe aren’t the best choice for donors
cats need sedation

93
Q

what are the donation volume limits for cats?

A

10-12 ml/kg

94
Q

what are the donation volume limits for dogs?

A

15 ml/kg

95
Q

what should happen to the blood during collection?

A

gently roll to mix with anticoagulant

96
Q

what do cats need following blood donation?

A

IVFT over 60-120 mins

97
Q

what volume of fluids should cats receive following donation?

A

double volume of blood collected

98
Q

when should food and water be offered after donation?

A

straight away for dogs and after sedation has worn off for cats

99
Q

should animals have activity restricted after blood donation?

A

yes - 24 hours

100
Q

how is open donation performed?

A

using syringes /butterfly catheter and syringe with a pre-calculated amount of anti coagulant in

101
Q

what is the issue with open donation?

A

one or more additional sites for potential bacterial contamination

102
Q

what is the advantage of closed donation?

A

the only exposure is when the needle is uncapped to perform venepuncture

103
Q

do both open and closed donation need anti-coagulant?

A

yes

104
Q

what animals is open donation used in?

A

felines

small dogs

105
Q

what animals is closed donation used in?

A

large dogs only

106
Q

is the shelf life of blood longer for blood collected through open or closed donation?

A

closed

107
Q

before administering blood products what should you do?

A

visually inspect bag to check for breakage, leakage, discolouration and gas bubbles

108
Q

how do frozen blood products need to be prepared before they are given to a patient?

A

gently thawed in a warm water bath

109
Q

should whole blood or PRBCs be warmed before administration?

A

can be warmed very gently in patients at risk of hypothermia but otherwise unnecessary

110
Q

what is the risk of warming blood products?

A

can cause pre-transfusion haemolysis

111
Q

what should you record about the patient before administering blood?

A

record baseline parameters and monitor throughout

112
Q

how should blood be administered to a patient?

A

using blood giving set or IVFT giving set with an in line filter
IO if desperate

113
Q

how much blood should be administered to patients?

A

10-20 ml/kg

114
Q

by how much does PCV increase by for every 2 ml/kg of blood given?

A

approx 1%

115
Q

what types of blood filters are available?

A

built into drip chamber of giving set

in-line filter that can be inserted into giving sets

116
Q

how should blood administration be started?

A

slowly 1ml/kg/hr for 20 mins to check for transfusion reaction

117
Q

how rapidly should blood be given after the first 20mins?

A

over 4-6 hours

118
Q

should patients be fed during transfusion?

A

no

119
Q

what can be administered through the same catheter as the blood?

A

nothing other than 0.9% saline as it could cause haemolysis or blood clots

120
Q

what must be done when a patient has has a transfusion?

A

all future / present healthcare providers should be notified that the patient has received a transfusion

121
Q

what parameters should you monitor on a patient during a transfusion?

A
attitude/mentation
rectal temp
pulse rate and quality
RR and character
MM and CRT
plasma and urine colour
122
Q

how often should patients be monitored during a transfusion?

A

prior to
every 15 mins during
1, 12 and 24 hours after

123
Q

when should PCV/TS be checked?

A

prior to
oncompletion of transfusion
12-24 hours collowing transfusion

124
Q

what are the 3 main causes of immunologic transfusion reactions?

A

antigen-antibody sensitivity reaction (IgG and IgM mediated)
cytokines from product storage/leukocytes within product
allergic/hypersensitivity reaction (IgE mediated)

125
Q

what are examples of non-immunological transfusion reactions?

A
volume overload
citrate intoxication
coagulopathy/thrombosis
ammonia intoxication
bacterial contamination of the unit
pre-transfusion haemolysis
126
Q

what is the most severe type of immunologic transfusion reaction?

A

antigen-antibody sensitivity reaction (IgG and IgM mediated)

127
Q

what should you do if a transfusion reaction occurs?

A

stop the transfusion and manage specific signs

check the patient and product for evidence of haemolysis

128
Q

what should you do if you have a patient with a transfusion reaction and signs of distributive shock?

A

fluid resuscitation

129
Q

what should you do if you have a patient with a transfusion reaction and suspect hypersensitivity?

A

give anit-histemines

130
Q

what should you do if you have a patient with a transfusion reaction and suspect bacterial contamination?

A

send sample for micro-biology and treat with broad spectrum IV antibiotics

131
Q

what should you do if you have a patient with a transfusion reaction and dyspnoea?

A

provide oxygen

132
Q

what should you do if you have a patient with a transfusion reaction and intravascular haemolysis?

A

monitor renal function and support

133
Q

what should you do if you have a patient with a transfusion reaction and signs of volume overload?

A

slow infusion rate

give diuretic therapy

Decks in X Clinical Veterinary Nursing Theory Class (70):