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Flashcards in Vaccines Deck (100)
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1
Q

why should animals be vaccinated?

A

protection from life threatening clinical disease

2
Q

who is protected when animals are vaccinated?

A

the individual
the animal population by achieving heard immunity
the human population (zoonosis)

3
Q

when is herd immunity achieved?

A

when 70% of the population is vaccinated against a disease

4
Q

what is the risk vs benefit calculation with vaccination?

A

disease vs adverse reaction from vaccine

5
Q

what is the name for homeoprophylaxis that is used by some in place of a vaccine?

A

nosodes - is not a vaccine!

6
Q

define vaccine

A

a substance that is administered in order to stimulate an immune response and immunological memory in the host against a particular disease

7
Q

define immunity

A

protection from a disease

8
Q

how what are the 2 ways immunity can be acquired other than infection and recovery?

A

active

passive

9
Q

what is active immunity?

A

that which is acquired through vaccination

10
Q

what is passive immunity?

A

that which is acquired through maternally derived antibodies

11
Q

what is an antigen?

A

a substance which the immune system produces antibodies against

12
Q

what does an antigen form part of in an vaccine?

A

active component - usually part/an infectious agent

13
Q

what are antigens used in as well as for vaccines?

A

cancer therapy

de-sensitisation programmes for allergies

14
Q

what is an antibody?

A

an immunoglobulin that is part of the specific immune attach against a specific antigen

15
Q

what is serology?

A

blood test to measure the level of antibodies in the blood against a specific infectious organism

16
Q

what does serology measure?

A

level of antibodies in the blood

17
Q

what will a positive antibody result in serology correlate with in some diseases?

A

the level of protection that the animal has

18
Q

what is the difference between mucosal immunity and cell mediated immunity?

A

mucosal is antibodies found on mucosal surface, cell mediated is related to T Cells

19
Q

what is titre a measure of?

A

the level of antibody in the blood

20
Q

what are the 2 types of vaccines?

A

infectious (live)

non-infectious (killed)

21
Q

what are infectious vaccines also known as?

A

live
modified live (MLV)
live attenuated

22
Q

what is the animal vaccinated with when they are given a live vaccine?

A

modified/attenuated (reduced pathogenicity) whole organism of the disease you are vaccinating against

23
Q

what does the live vaccine do within the body?

A

circulates
infects
replicates

24
Q

what is caused by a live vaccine?

A

low level infection

25
Q

what sort of immune response does a live vaccine result in?

A

strong

26
Q

how frequent does re-administration of live vaccines need to be?

A

less frequent than inactivated

27
Q

what are non-infectious vaccines known as?

A

killed

inactivated

28
Q

what is the animal vaccinated with when they are given a inactivated vaccine?

A

whole organism (or sometimes subunit) of the disease being vaccinated against that is killed or inert

29
Q

what is contained in subunit inactivated vaccines?

A

antigen from the organism

30
Q

what are the newer inactivated vaccines that are available?

A

recombinant

naked DNA

31
Q

do inactivated vaccines cause infection?

A

no

32
Q

what is required within inactivated vaccines to stimulate an immune response?

A

adjuvants

33
Q

what is required to maintain immunity from an inactivated vaccine?

A

multiple doses and more frequent readministration

34
Q

how should vaccines be stored?

A

varies between vaccines - check data sheet

35
Q

what is the most common storage location for vaccines?

A

refridgerated

36
Q

what temperature must refrigerated vaccines be stored at?

A

2-8 degrees C

37
Q

how are vaccines classically delivered?

A

SQ

38
Q

what are the other routes of vaccine delivery?

A

intra-nasally
IM
orally

39
Q

what must happen before an animal receives a vaccine?

A

health check with the vets

40
Q

why are the vaccines within the CORE vaccinations programme needed?

A

due to prevalence

41
Q

what are the vaccines in the canine CORE vaccination programme (UK)?

A

Distemper (CDV)
Hepatitis (Adenovirus)
Parvovirus (CPV-2)
Leptospira spp.

42
Q

what form of vaccine are the Distemper (CDV), Hepatitis (Adenovirus) and Parvovirus (CPV-2) vaccines?

A

MLV

43
Q

what other form of vaccine can CDV come in?

A

recombinant

44
Q

what form of vaccine is the Leptospira spp.?

A

inactivated

45
Q

when does protection from maternally derived antibodies begin to wear off?

A

between 6 and 16 weeks

46
Q

when does the WSAVA say the ideal initial puppy vaccination should take place?

A

@6-8 weeks

47
Q

according to the WSAVA what is the correct puppy vaccination protocol?

A

initial at 6-8 weeks then q2-4 weeks until 16 weeks

48
Q

in practice when is the first canine vaccine usually given?

A

6-8 weeks (check datasheet)

49
Q

in practice when is the second vaccine usually given?

A

2-4 weeks later

50
Q

how old must the puppy be before the second vaccine can be given?

A

no younger than 10 weeks

51
Q

why are multiple doses of CORE vaccines needed over a period of time for puppies?

A

to ensure adequate protection at all times without giving to early and risking maternal antibodies destroying the vaccine and too late and risking serious infection due to immune gap

52
Q

when does WSAVA advise the last vaccine of a puppy course be given?

A

no earlier than 16 weeks of age

53
Q

describe the protocol for leptospirosis vaccines of puppies

A

2 doses, 2-4 weeks apart

54
Q

what are leptospirosis vaccines usually given alongside?

A

viral components of CORE vaccine

55
Q

what are the 2 types of leptospirosis vaccine?

A

L2

L4

56
Q

what is included in the L2 vaccine?

A

L. canicola

L.icterohaemorrhagiae

57
Q

what is included in the L4 vaccine?

A
L. canicola
L.icterohaemorrhagiae
and 2 of:
L. bratislava
L. dadas
L. grippotyphosa
58
Q

how are the viral and leptospirosis components of the vaccine usually given in one syringe?

A

liquid fraction from leptospirosis is used to dissolve viral pellet

59
Q

when is the first canine adult annual vaccine?

A

at 12 months

60
Q

how often are CDV, CAV-2 and CPV-2 vaccines given in adult canines?

A

every 3 years or governed by titre testing

61
Q

how often are leptospirosis vaccines given in adult canines?

A

annually or q6 months in high risk areas

62
Q

if an animal recovers from leptospirosis infection is vaccination still required?

A

yes

63
Q

what are the non- CORE canine vaccinations available?

A
kennel cough
canine parainfluenza (CPiV)
Canine herpes virus
coronavirus
rabies
64
Q

how is the kennel cough vaccine administered?

A

intranasal

65
Q

what form of vaccine is the kennel cough vaccine?

A

MLV, live

66
Q

what can the kennel cough vaccine be given in combination with?

A

CPiV and CAV-2

67
Q

what is the modified element found in the kennel cough vaccine?

A

Bordetella bronchosepta

68
Q

why is there a human risk with the kennel cough vaccine?

A

humans can become infected with bordetella if they come into contact with the vaccine

69
Q

what is canine parainfluenza (CPiV) vaccine sometimes included with?

A

some CORE vaccines

70
Q

who most often vaccinates against canine herpes virus?

A

almost exclusively breeders

71
Q

when is the coronavirus vaccine given to dogs?

A

endemically infected kennels

72
Q

when are rabies vaccines given in the UK?

A

for travel

73
Q

what vaccines are included in the feline CORE vaccinations?

A

Feline herpes virus (FHV-1)
feline calici virus (FCV)
Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)

74
Q

what is the common 4th component of feline CORE vaccinations?

A

feline leukaemia virus (FeLV)

75
Q

what type of vaccines are the 3 CORE feline vaccines?

A

MLV

76
Q

what type of vaccine is the feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) vaccine?

A

recombinant or killed

77
Q

when does the WSAVA suggest initial feline vaccinations should be given?

A

6-8 weeks

78
Q

according to the WSAVA what is the correct kitten vaccination protocol?

A

initial @ 6-8 weeks then q2-4 weeks until 16 weeks

79
Q

when is the first kitten vaccine usually given in practice?

A

8-9 weeks

80
Q

when is the second kitten vaccine usually given in practice?

A

3-4 weeks later, no earlier than 12 weeks of age

81
Q

when does WSAVA advise that the last vaccine of a kitten course be given?

A

no earlier than 16 weeks of age

82
Q

when does the first feline adult vaccination occur?

A

at 12 months

83
Q

how often is FPV vaccine given to adult cats?

A

every 3 years or governed by titre testing

84
Q

how often are adult cats vaccinated against FHV-1 and FCV?

A

annually or possibly every 3 years if low risk

85
Q

what are the main non-core feline vaccines?

A
feline leukaemia virus (FeLV)
feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)
chlamydia felis 
bordetella bronchiseptica
feline coronavirus (FCoV)
rabies
86
Q

when may chlamydia felis vaccine be needed?

A

multicat households

87
Q

what type of vaccine should be used during pregnancy?

A

killed / inactivated

88
Q

what is the frequency of vaccine adverse events?

A

ultimately is low

89
Q

what should vaccine adverse events be reported to?

A

veterinary medicines directive

90
Q

what are the mild signs of vaccine adverse effects?

A

transient pyrexia
lethargy
inappetance
local swelling

91
Q

when are mild vaccine adverse effects seen?

A

2-3 days post vaccine in younger animals especially

92
Q

what are the possible severe vaccine adverse effects?

A

anaphylaxis

feline injection site sarcoma (FISS)

93
Q

what are the main signs of anaphylaxis?

A

distributive shock
dyspnoea
vomiting
pitting oedema (fluid build up)

94
Q

where do feline injection site sarcomas appear?

A

arise at sight of prior injection

95
Q

what is the prognosis of feline injection site sarcomas?

A

tend to be aggressive and metastasize quickly

96
Q

why do vaccines carry slightly more risk of FISS than other injections?

A

adjuvants and lower temperature of drug at administration that are commonly seen with vaccines

97
Q

what state should animals be in at the time of vaccination?

A

healthy and clinically well

98
Q

what drugs should be checked for in an animals history before they are vaccinated?

A

steroids

immunosuppressives

99
Q

what can be done if there is strong evidence of a prior vaccine reaction?

A

give a different manufacturer

try component vaccines

100
Q

when are the occasions when vaccination should not happen?

A

animal not clinically well at time of appointment
on steroids or immunosuppressants
strong evidence of prior vaccine reaction
if the animal is already infected with the disease
if the animal has recovered from natural infection with the disease (in the case of viruses)

Decks in X Clinical Veterinary Nursing Theory Class (70):