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Flashcards in Minor Surgical Conditions Deck (82)
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1
Q

what is an abscess?

A

localised collection of purulent material lined with granulation and fibrous tissue

2
Q

where can abscess occur?

A

in any tissue

3
Q

what normally happens as an abscess progresses?

A

points and bursts leading to drainage

4
Q

what are the main complications arising from abscesses?

A

toxaemia
pyaemia
sinus
skin necrosis

5
Q

what do the pyogenic organisms found within abscesses do?

A

cause cell death and inflammation

6
Q

what are the key signs of abscess?

A
pyrexia
anorexia
vomiting
pain
swelling 
discharge (skin abscess)
7
Q

how should an abscess be treated?

A

establish drainage
maintain drainage
treatment with antibiotics

8
Q

how should drainage be established from an abscess?

A

lance with sterile scalpel blade and flush with saline or weak disinfectant solutions

9
Q

what is the issue with using weak disinfectant solutions to flush abscesses?

A

can lead to minor skin irritation

10
Q

what may be required for deep / internal abscesses?

A

surgery for resection

11
Q

how should drainage of an abscess be maintained?

A

keep open with regular bathing and flushing

surgical drains may be needed for deeper abscesses

12
Q

when should treatment with antibiotics begin for an abscess?

A

once drainage is achieved

13
Q

what other medication should be considered in the abscess patient?

A

analgesia

14
Q

what does cellulitis arise from?

A

acut inflammation?

15
Q

what is cellulitis?

A

non-localised distribution of pus through tissue

16
Q

what are the signs of cellulitis?

A

pain
area sensitive to touch
pyrexia
generalised swelling

17
Q

how is cellulitis treated?

A

systemic antibiotics
anti-inflammatory medication
analgesia

18
Q

what is a sinus (medical condition)?

A

infected blind ending tract leading from a focus of infection (deeper tissues) tot he boy surface or mucous membrane

19
Q

what is a sinus lined with?

A

granulation tissue

20
Q

what are the signs of sinus?

A

pyrexia
pain
sensitive to touch
disease specific signs (depends on cause)

21
Q

what are 2 examples of sinus formation?

A

foreign body tract (e.g. grass seeds0

anal furunculosis

22
Q

what is anal furunculosis?

A

deep pyoderma leading to many sinus tracts

23
Q

what is a fistula?

A

abnormal tract between two epithelial surfaces or connecting an epithelial surface to the skin

24
Q

what can fistula arise as a result of?

A

injury or trauma

congenital - lined with epithelium

25
Q

what is an oro-nasal fistula?

A

tract between nasal cavity and oral cavity

26
Q

what are the signs of fistula?

A

chronic infection
visual abnormality
physical abnormality

27
Q

what is required to treat all fistulas?

A

surgical repair

28
Q

what are ulcers?

A

the loss of the epithelial surface of a tissue (skin / mucous membrane)
shallow lesions caused by trauma and aggravated by poor blood supply and / or infection

29
Q

how long to ulcers take to heal?

A

slow

30
Q

what are the common areas of the body affected by ulcers?

A

skin
GI tract
cornea

31
Q

what are the signs of ulcers?

A

pain
swelling
visual appearence
secondary issues (e.g. infection

32
Q

how can ulcers be treated?

A

remove cause
keep surface clean
dress wound if possible
surgical treatment

33
Q

what are the 4 main causes of an ulcer?

A

pathogens
irritants
poor blood supply
pressure

34
Q

what pathogens can lead to ulcers?

A

Calici virus

35
Q

what can corneal ulcers vary in?

A

depth

36
Q

what are corneal ulcers caused by?

A

trauma
bacteria (melting ulcers)
eyelash / eyelid disorders (e.g. entropian)

37
Q

what are the signs of corneal ulcer?

A

increased lacrimation
occular pain
occular discharge
blepherospasm

38
Q

how can decubitus ulcers be prevented?

A

padding and good patient management

39
Q

what are the signs of decubitus ulcers?

A
pain
open wound
possible pyrexia due to secondary bacterial infections
sensitivity around area
restricted movement
40
Q

what are cysts?

A

abnormal sac filled with fluid or semi solid matter lined with epithelium

41
Q

what are sebaceous cysts?

A

cysts of the skin

42
Q

what are interdigital cysts?

A

cysts between the toes

43
Q

what are ovarian cysts?

A

fluid filled sac on the ovary

44
Q

what are hydatid cysts?

A

Cysts found in organs (e.g. liver) associated with echinococcosis

45
Q

what are meibomian cysts?

A

Cyst of the eyelid caused by foreign body reaction

46
Q

what are the signs of cysts?

A

swelling
visual appearance
restriction of movement
secondary problems dependent on type

47
Q

what is a haematoma?

A

blood vessel bursts causing blood to accumulate in tissues

48
Q

where can haematomas occur?

A

anywhere on the body

49
Q

what are the signs of haematoma?

A

swelling
pain
discolouration of skin

50
Q

what may a haematoma be caused by?

A

trauma
surgery
clotting
blood vessel abnormality

51
Q

what is a rupture?

A

protrusion of organs or soft tissue through an unnatural opening or tear

52
Q

what usually causes rupture?

A

result of trauma although there may be a weakness that predisposes the tear

53
Q

what is a hernia?

A

abnormal protrusion of organs or soft tissues through a natural opening

54
Q

where do hernias usually occur?

A

through the abdominal wall - umbilical hernia

55
Q

what are the 3 classifications of hernia or rupture?

A

reducible
irreducible / incarcerated
strangulated

56
Q

how are reducible hernias / ruptures corrected?

A

usually through gentle pressure applied to protrusion

57
Q

describe a reducible hernia / rupture

A

contents can be repositioned to the original anatomical location

58
Q

describe a irreducible / incarcerated hernia or rupture

A

contents cannot be repositioned to the original anatomical location

59
Q

what is an irreducible / incarcerated hernia or rupture due to?

A

adhesions or other complication

60
Q

describe a strangulated hernia / rupture

A

contents become devitalised due to the blood vessels being restricted - can lead to necrosis

61
Q

what is the most life threatening classification of hernia / rupture?

A

strangulated

62
Q

when is umbilical hernia most common?

A

in kittens and puppies

63
Q

what may be a contributory factor to umbilical hernias in kittens and puppies?

A

mishandling at births

64
Q

in the majority of umbilical hernia cases what has moved through the hole in the abdominal wall?

A

small amount of falciform fat

65
Q

if the hole is larger what structures may be involved in an umbilical hernia?

A

abdominal contents

66
Q

how are umbilical hernias treated?

A

small ones often left
larger may be treated when a midline incision is already being made (e.g. spay)
the most severe will need surgery to resolve ASAP

67
Q

what happens during an inguinal hernia?

A

herniation occurs through inguinal canal

68
Q

how is an inguinal hernia often seen in females?

A

swelling by groin extending to vulva

69
Q

how is inguinal hernia often seen in males?

A

fat or intestine herniates into scrotal sac

70
Q

what are the complications associated with inguinal hernia?

A

strangulation

rupture

71
Q

what is used to determine the severity of inguinal hernia?

A

ultrasound or radiography

72
Q

when is perineal hernia most common?

A

elderly dogs due to chronic constipation which leads to excessive straining (potentially caused by prostatic hyperplasia in male dogs)

73
Q

how does excessive straining lead to perineal hernia?

A

muscle layers break down around anal sphincter and hernia forms

74
Q

what are the types of perineal hernia?

A

unilateral

bilateral

75
Q

why does diaphragmatic rupture usually arise?

A

trauma e.g. RTA

76
Q

what is a key sign of diaphragmatic rupture?

A

animal quickly becomes dyspnoeic

77
Q

why does an animal become dyspnoeic with diaphragmatic rupture?

A

the abdominal contents fall forwards into the chest

78
Q

how will an animal with diaphragmatic rupture find breathing easier?

A

if sitting up as abdominal contents are kept away from lungs

79
Q

why does diaphragmatic repair require IPPV?

A

once the abdominal cavity is opened air will enter the thoracic cavity so patient will be unable to ventilate themselves

80
Q

what does ventral or abdominal rupture describe?

A

refers to a tear anywhere on the abdominal wall other than the umbilical or inguinal regions

81
Q

hwo does ventral / abdominal rupture arise?

A

trauma as there is no predisposition (e.g. RTA or blunt trauma)

82
Q

how is ventral / abdominal rupture identified?

A

CT or X ray

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