Infectious Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infectious Disease Deck (53)
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1
Q

define infectious disease

A

disease that is able to be passed from one person, animal or plant to another

2
Q

define zoonosis (zoonotic disease)

A

disease that can be passed from humans to animals

3
Q

give an example of a zoonotic disease

A

leptosporosis

4
Q

define reverse zoonosis

A

a disease that can be passed from humans to animals

5
Q

what is a community acquired disease?

A

a disease that is acquired within the community

6
Q

what is a hospital acquired / nosocomial disease?

A

disease acquired in hospital

7
Q

what is a pathogen?

A

disease causing organism

8
Q

what are commensals?

A

organism that inhabits a specific mucosal surface in the body and is a normal finding

9
Q

what type of organisms are bacteria?

A

single celled

10
Q

why are bacterial cells prokaryotic?

A

have no nucleus

11
Q

how do bacteria reproduce?

A

binary fission

12
Q

describe how binary fission works

A

adult cell splits into two identical daughter cells

13
Q

what are the 3 main bacteria shapes/morphology?

A

coccoid (spherical)
bacillus (rods)
spiral

14
Q

what is an example of a coccoid bacteria?

A

Staphylococcus

15
Q

what is an example of a bacillus bacteria?

A

Escherichia coli

16
Q

what is an example of spiral bacteria?

A

Leptosporosis

17
Q

as well as morphology how do bacteria vary?

A

staining and cellular characteristic

18
Q

what are the 2 ways bacterial infections are diagnosed?

A

organism detection

demonstration of antibody (for some)

19
Q

how can bacteria be detected?

A

microscopy and/or culture

20
Q

what size are viruses?

A

sub-microscopic

21
Q

what is required by a virus in order to replicate?

A

host cell

22
Q

why does viral invasion usually result in cell death?

A

as cell is taken over by virus and becomes factory for virus

23
Q

what are the virus morphologies?

A

diverse

24
Q

what are 2 examples of veterinary viruses?

A

parvovirus (dogs)

feline herpes virus (cats)

25
Q

how are viruses diagnosed?

A

demonstration of virus (antigen or DNA)

demonstration of antibody

26
Q

how should viral infections be treated?

A

antivirals when available

supportive treatment

27
Q

how should pathogenic viruses be treated?

A

antibiotics

28
Q

what type of organisms are fungi usually?

A

multicellular eukaryotic

29
Q

what does heterotrophic mean in terms of fungi?

A

cannot make their own food so rely on host

30
Q

what type of reproduction do fungi use?

A

sexual and asexual

31
Q

when do fungi typically cause infections in veterinary patients in the UK?

A

in the presence of immunocompromise

32
Q

how are fungal infections diagnosed?

A

organism identification

demonstration of antibody (for some)

33
Q

how can fungal organisms be identified?

A

microscopy
fungal culture
antigens
DNA

34
Q

how are fungal infections treated?

A

prolonged antifungals

35
Q

what are the 3 main parasite types?

A

helminths (worms)
protozoa
ectoparasites

36
Q

what type of reproduction are parasites capable of?

A

sexual and asexual

37
Q

what type of organisms are parasites?

A

eukaryotic multicelled

38
Q

what does host adapted mean in parasites?

A

cause disease in specific host

39
Q

where do parasites infect?

A

frequently organ specific

some are multi systemic

40
Q

what does the parasite depend on the host for?

A

survival - mainly through food

41
Q

how are parasites diagnosed?

A

identification of organism

42
Q

how can parasites be identified?

A

microscopy
gross visualisation
antigens
DNA

43
Q

how are parasites treated?

A

specific antiparasitic to parasite

44
Q

what type of organisms are protozoa?

A

single celled eukaryotic

45
Q

what types of sexual reproduction are protozoa capable of?

A

sexual and asexual

46
Q

what do most veterinary pathogenic protozoa cause?

A

GI or multi-systemic disease

47
Q

what is an example of GI pathogenic protozoa?

A

Giardia

48
Q

what is an example of multi-systemic pathogenic protozoa?

A

toxoplasma

49
Q

what are the 2 forms of protozoa?

A

cyst (dormant) and trophozoite (active)

50
Q

how are protozoa diagnosed?

A

organism detection

demonstration of antibody (for some)

51
Q

how can protozoa be detected?

A

microscopy
antigen
DNA

52
Q

how are protozoa treated?

A

anti-protozoals

some antibiotics

53
Q

how can infection be spread between animals?

A
poor staff/owner hand hygiene
ectoparasites
phomites
grooming/fighting and so spread of bodily fluids
blood products from unscreened donors
aerosol
urine/faeces

Decks in X Clinical Veterinary Nursing Theory Class (70):