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Flashcards in Cardio exam 5 drugs Deck (60):
1

Meds to tx increased preload HF

diuretics
aldosterone antagonists
ANP

2

Meds to tx increased afterload HF

ACE-I's
ARBs

3

Use of loop diuretics in HF

pulmonary edema
decreases volume and causes venodilation

4

Metabolic changes with loop diuretics

increased Glc/urea
decreased H+/Na+/Mg2+/K+

5

Toxicity of loop diuretics

ototoxicity

6

Metabolic changes with thiazide diuretics

decreased K+/Mg2+/Na+/H+
increased Glc/urea/lipids/Ca2+

7

Side effects of diuretics with HF

overdiuresis
electrolyte imbalance (Mg2+/K+) causing arrhythmia

8

Action and use of nitrates

venous vasodilators
for angina and HF

9

Problem with nitrate use

tolerance, alternatve every 12 hrs

10

ACE-I's/ARBs with HF and beneficial group to use with

decrease preload and afterload
also tx HTN
pts with renal insufficiency (slows progression)

11

What are ACE-I's 1st line for?

systolic HF
ARBs with increased K+ or decreased renal fxn

12

Hydralazine + IDN use and side effect

for pts who cannot use ACE-I's or ARBs
can cause lupus like syndrome

13

Side effect of Na+ nitroprusside

cyanide and thiocyanate toxicity

14

Use of nesiritide

for acute decompensated HF
supresses neurohormonal stimulation
recombinant B type natriuetic peptide

15

Use of sympathomimetic amines in HF

acute/decompensated HF

16

Sympathomimetic amines used with HF

dopamine (increases renal fxn)
dobutamine
NE/epi
isoproterenol (increases vasodilation)

17

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors

amrinone
milrinone

18

Action of digoxin

increases vagal tone
inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase in sarcolemma (which increases refractory and increases Ca2+ stored in SR)

19

Dopamine doses and effects

10um/kg/min for peripheral vasoconstriction (alpha1)

20

Electrolyte imbalances increasing digoxin toxicity

decreased K+/Mg2+
increased Ca2+

21

Beta blockers increasing survival with HF

metoprolol succinate
bisoprolol
carvedilol

22

Beta blockers excreted by kidneys (not liver)

atenolol
nadolol
sotalol
carteolol

23

Benefit of aldosterone antagonists with systolic HF

decreased mortality and morbidity

24

Side effect of aldosterone antagonists

gynecomastia
hyperkalemia

25

Drug that decreases mortality perioperatively

beta blockers

26

Antiarrhythmic not causing QT prolongation

propafenone`

27

Major characteristics of class IA antiarrhythmics

can cause Torsades
discontinuation side effects
quinidine (cinchonism)
procainamide (lupus)
disopyramide (anticholinergic)

28

Class IB uses

for ventricular arrhythmias

29

Class IC use

PVC

30

Side effects of class II antiarrhythmics

bronchoconstriction
AV block

31

Class III antiarrhythmic toxicities

hyper/hypothyroidism
pulmonary toxicity
bradycardia
hepatic toxicity

32

Use of sotalol

better efficacy with life threatening pts
beta blockers and K+ channel blocker

33

Dofetilide uses

for A fib/flutter only
effects only I(kr) K+ current

34

Dronedarone uses and contraindication

decreases A fib recurrence rates
contra in class IV HF or II/III HF with recent hospitalization

35

Tx for pulseless VT or V fib

CPR + shock, then
epi/vasopressin then
amiodarone (or Mg2+ if Torsades)

36

What does amiodarone decrease mortality with?

CHF and acute MI

37

Drug to use post MI

beta blockers

38

Drugs to use for high risk or VT/VF

defib
amiodarone
sotalol

39

Drugs causing Torsades

class IA and III antiarrhythmics

40

Tx for Torsades

Mg2+

41

Drugs for A fib/flutter

CCBs
beta blockers
digoxin

42

Drug for PSVT

adenosine
does not effect VT

43

Drugs decreasing mortality with CHF and MI

beta blockers
ACE-I's

44

ACE-I with sulfa allergy

captopril

45

What do you monitor with ACE-I's?

serum creatinine and K+ levels

46

Population with benefit of hydralazine/ IDN

African Americans with class III/IV HF

47

What is metolazone?

thiazide related
synergistic with loop diuretics for K+ loss

48

What are tolvaptan/conivaptan?

vasopressin receptor blockers
tx hyponatremia

49

Action of digoxin on heart (generally)

increased contractility

50

Use of nicotinic acid

decrease TG mostly, and increase HDL

51

Side effects of nicotinic acid

increased serum Glc
hyperuricemia
hepatotoxicity

52

Use of fibrinic acids

decrease TG mostly

53

Use of ezetimibe

synergistic with statins to decrease LDL
prevents absorption in GI lumen

54

Drugs to tx increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (pulmonary HTN)

natriuetic peptide
vasodilators

55

Drugs to tx decreased cardiac index

dobutamine
milrinone
Ca2+ sensitizers

56

Tx unfractionated heparin OD bleeding

protamine sulfate for bleeding

57

Tx unfractionated heparin thrombocytopenia

direct thrombin inhibitor

58

LMW heparin inhibits what?

fractor Xa (don't need to monitor)

59

Direct thrombin inhibitors

leipuridin
bivalirudin
argatrovban

60

Tx for 2nd degree AV block

atropine
dopamine
isoproterenol