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Flashcards in Exam 2 Micro Deck (63):
1

Coccidioides immitis characteristics

Southwest US (Jan Joaquin Valley)
Spherules in yeast form
KOH prep dx

2

Tx for dimorphic fungi

ketoconazole/fluconazole normally
amphotericin B for pregnancy

3

Blastomyces dermatitidis characteristics

Ohio/Mississippi Rivers
broad based budding yeast
can disseminate into CNS

4

Histoplasma characteristics

Ohio/Missouri/Mississippi basins
bird/bat droppings/cave diving
intracellular in WBC

5

Paracoccidioidomycosis characteristics

Latin America
multiple broad based budding yeast

6

Aspergillosis

type I hypersensitivity
from A. fumigatus and flavus
opportunistic

7

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

type III/IV hypersensitivity
pts with asthma and cystic fibrosis
aka Farmer's Lung
damage from cytokines

8

Noninvasive pulmonary aspergillosis

aspergilloma
intertwined septate hyphae
in lung cavity

9

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

neutropenic pts (immunocompromised)
hemoptysis
rapidly fatal

10

Dx of aspergillosis

acute 45 degree branching hyphae

11

Zygomycosis/mucormycosis characteristics

acute/rapid progression
ketoacidotic diabetics/leukemia pts
black pus out of nose
CNS infiltration
nonseptate hyphae branching at 90 degrees

12

Stachybotrys chartarum characteristics

mycotoxin producing
wet wood/paper
asthma sx
hemoptysis/hemosiderosis

13

Pneumocystis jiroveci characteristics

AIDS pts below CD4 count of 200
atypical pneumonia
binds receptors on macrophages
dx with giemsa stain (dented helmets)
or gomori methenamine silver stain

14

Paragonimus westermani characteristics

lung fluke
undercooked crab/cray fish
coffee bean shaped
snail is intermediate host
hemoptysis

15

Dx of paragonimus westermani

golden brown operculated eggs in sputum

16

Causes of typical pneumonia

Strep pneumo
Klebsiella
H. influenza
Moraxella catarrhalis
S. aureus

17

Dx of strep pneumo/virulence

alpha-hemolytic
optochin sensitive
gram (+) diplococci
IgA protease/pneumolysin/capsule

18

Strep pneumo vaccine

PPSV23-capsule types for adults
PCV13-conjugated for children/immunocompromised

19

Dx of klebsiella

currant jelly sputum
gram (-) rod
lactose + on MacConkey agar

20

Risks for klebsiella

alcoholism
ventilators

21

Dx of H. influenza

growth on chocolate agar
needs heme (x) and NAD (v)
gram (-) short fat rod

22

Staph aureus pneumonia

salmon pink sputum
empyema
shock/hemoptysis

23

Causes of atypical pneumonias

mycoplasma pneumo
chlamydophila
legionella
coxiella burnetii
viral

24

Dx of mycoplasma pneumo

large number of PMNs
cold agglutinins (+)

25

Assc with mycoplasma pneumo

college/high school students
lack of seasonality
nonproductive cough

26

Chlamydophila pneumo

gram (-)
large number of PMNs
elementary body outside
reticulate body inside (replicates)

27

Legionella pneumophila

gram (-)
water units/AC units
intracellular in Macrophages

28

Dx of legionella

charcoal yeast agar (iron and cystein)
fluorescent Ab staining in urine

29

Nosocomial pneumonia causes

pseudomonas (assc with Burkholderia cepacia)
S aureus
H. influenza
enterics

30

Risks for pseudomonas pneumonia

cystic fibrosis
ventilation

31

Anaerobic pneumo causes/sx

fusobacterium and bacteroides
foul smelling sputum

32

Anthrax characteristics

gram (+) rod
box car shaped
polyglutamic acid capsule
antrhax toxin/endospores

33

Dx of yersinia pestis

coccobacillus gram (-)
bipolar staining aka safety pin stain

34

Q fever cause

coxiella burnetii
gram (-) coccobacillus
intracellular
unpasteurized milk/cattle,sheep, goats

35

Francisella tularensis

gram (-) coccobacillus
rabbit fever
intracellular
growth on charcoal yeast or Cysteine/Glc blood agar

36

Tuberculosis characteristics

mycolic acid cell wall (acid fast stain)
cord factor has serpentine arrangement (virulence)
sulfatide prevents lysosomal fusion
causes TNF-alpha release

37

Dx of TB

auramine rhadamine stain/acid fast stain
Lowenstein-Jensen agar growth
PPD test (type IV HS)

38

MAC pneumonia

immunocompromised (low CD4 count)
acid fast gram (+) rod

39

Nocardia characteristics

gram (+)
weakly acid fast
branching filaments
dx on blood or chocolate agar (fluffy on culture)

40

Causes of otitis media

Strep pneumo
H. influenza
Moraxella catarrhalis

41

Strep pneumo dx/labs

lancet shaped gram (+)
alpha-hemolytic
optochin sensitive
bile soluble

42

Causes of epiglottitis

most commonly H. influenza
S. aureus
S. pneumo
S. pyogenes

43

Virulence factors of H. influenza

polyribitol phosphate capsule
IgA protease
endotoxin

44

Vaccine for H. flu

based on type B capsule
conjugated

45

Moraxella catarrhalis characteristics

gram (-) diplococci
beta-lactamase producing
causes otitis media

46

Pseudomonas labs/tests

blue/green color
smells like grapes
gram (-) rod
fermentation (-)/oxidase (+)
growth on chocolate and MacConkey

47

Strep pyogenes pharyngitis

enlarged LN
palatal petechiae
tonsillar hypertrophy
scarlet fever rash

48

Strep pyogenes tests/labs

gram (+) diplococci
beta-hemolytic
bactracin sensitivie
PYR (+)
catalase (-)

49

M protein tissues with crossreactivity

cardiac myosin
sarcolemmal membrane protein
synovium
articular cartilage

50

Nephrogenic strep pyogenes

children ages 6-10
immune complex deposition in kidneys/glomerulonephritis
follows pharyngitis/cellulitis

51

Sx of nephrogenic strep pyogenes

hematuria (cola colored)
periorbital edema
HTN

52

Cause of nephrogenic strep pyogenes rxn

nephritis assc plasmin receptor (NAPlr)
SPE B

53

Dx of strep pyogenes

ASO-titer
anti-DNase B

54

S. pyogenes pyrogenic toxins

A-D
A and C lysogenized
cause Scarlet fever

55

Clostridia diphtheriae characteristics

gram (+) rod
club like swellings on ends
tox gene (iron regulated)
inhibits elongation factor 2

56

Sx of diphtheriae

pseudomembrane that bleeds when removed
bull neck
conjunctivitis

57

Dx of C. diphtheriae

Loeffler's/Tellurite agar
modified ELEK test
tox gene PCR

58

Bordatella pertussis virulence factors

gram (-) coccobacillus
filamentous hemaglutinin/pertactin bind ciliated cells
pertussis toxin inhibits Gi (increases cAMP)
adenylate toxin increases cAMP production

59

Stages of pertussis

catarrhal-highly contagious
paroxysmal-whooping cough
convalescence

60

Pertussis prevention

acellular vaccine
pertussis toxin + FH+ fimbriae + pertactin

61

Dx of pertussis

Regan-Lowe charcoal agar
DFA stain

62

Tx for pertussis

erythromycin

63

Tx for diphtheria

erythromycin/penicillin