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Flashcards in Exam 1 micro Deck (46):
1

Typical and atypical pneumonia on cheset xray

typical-lobar
atypical-interstitial

2

Most common pneumonia bacteria

strep pneumo

3

Pneumonia in unvaccinated children

H. influenza
(also see otitis media)

4

Encapsulated organisms (6)

Some killers have pretty nice capsules
Strep pneumo
Klebsiella
H. flu
Pseudomonas
Neisseri meningitidis
Cryptococcus neoformans

5

Opzonization

IgG and C3b
increases phagocytosis 4000 fold

6

Reason for neutrophils in pneumonia

teichoic acid recruits via C5a

7

Use of auramine rhodamine stain

acid fast screening
needs confirmation with acid fast

8

CD4 count and opportunistic infections with AIDS

below 200 CD4 count

9

TB pathogenesis

inhaled, alveolar macrophages take up
inhibit lysosomal fusion, replicate in macrophage
Th1-> IFN alpha-> macrophage activation and granuloma formation
immune system causes damage, not TB

10

Cause of night sweats/cachexia for immune molecules

TNF alpha

11

Virulence factors of TB

cord factor inhibits WBC migration
tuberculin triggers cell mediated immunity
sulfatides prevent macrophage lysosomal fusion

12

Influenza's virulence factors

hemagglutinen binds sialic acid on epithelium
neuroaminidase cleaves sialic acid/decreases mucus viscosity

13

Antigenic drift vs shift

drift-RNA pol causing mutations
shift-2 or more viruses form completely new virus

14

Cause of type I hypersensitivity

mast cell degranulation

15

Early asthma

involves mediators from mast cells/basophils
within minutes of exposure

16

Late asthma

leukocyte and cytokine mediated
IL4/IL5/TNFalpha/PAF involved
increased endothelial cell adhesion
chronic inflammation/tissue injury

17

Type III hypersensitivity

immune complexes deposited in tissues
activates complement
causes lumpy-bumpy bx of kidney

18

Type II hypersensitivity

tissue specific Abs to self
change in cell function or cytotoxic
linear/smooth bx of kidney

19

Type IV hypersensitivity

delayed
CD4 and cell mediated
macrophage and CTL activation
MS/Guillian Barre/Hasimotos/poison ivy

20

Most common bacterial atypical pneumonia

mycoplasma

21

Rhinovirus characteristics

naked + RNA
labile in acidic pH
uses ICAM-1 receptor
most common cause of cold
replicates at 33 degrees C

22

Coronavirus charge/genome/structure

enveloped
+ RNA
replicates at 33 degrees C

23

Pathogenesis of rhinovirus infection

ICAM-1 receptor attachment
damage epithelium
bradykinin/histamine release

24

Epiglottitis infection bugs

H flu. type B
S. pneumo
S. aureus
usually in kids

25

Coxsackie A pharyngitis

naked virus
herpangina types A2-A6
fecal/oral transfer

26

EBV pharyngitis

+ mononucleosis (splenomegaly)
in young adults/teens
exudative pharyngitis
fatigue/weakness

27

CMV pharyngitis

- mononucleosis
in older/sexually active pts

28

Parotitis

from mumps virus
- RNA enveloped
swollen parotids (bull neck)
low grade fever/myalgia/headache

29

Important complication of mumps

orchitis
sterility in post pubertal males

30

Parainfluenza virus laryngitis

stridor (barking cough)
types 1 and 2 are major cause
Steeple sign on x-ray
syncytia can form

31

Cause of most bronchitis

viral -> nonproductive cough

32

Respiratory syncytial virus

bronchiole infection of children/infants
tx with ribavirin (inhibits nucleic acid synthesis)
ribavirin is teratogenic

33

Difference b/t pneumonia and bronchitis

pneumonia has productive colored sputum with increased HR and fever/chills/SOB

34

Influenza virus

- segmented RNA enveloped virus
A is humans/animals
B and C are only humans
hemaglutinin and neuraminidase
M protein forms membrane channels

35

Genetic shift with influenza

only type A

36

Pathogenesis of influenza

causes increased fluid in lungs
drown in own fluid

37

Vaccine for influenza

killed or live attenuated
killed for pregnancy/immunocompromised
4 strains from prior year

38

Adenovirus

naked DNA
penton fibers attach and toxic to cells
pharyngoconjunctival fever/ARDS
serotypes 3,4,7 in live attenuated vaccine

39

Measles virus

- RNA enveloped
HN and F proteins
cough/coryza/conjunctivitis
koplik spots/maculopapular rash

40

Complications of measles

giant cell pneumonia
encephalitis
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

41

Vaccine for measles

live attenuated

42

Hantavirus

segmented - RNA enveloped
tropism for pulmonary capillary endothelial cells
found in US Southwest
from rodent feces

43

Hantavirus sx phases

prodrome (fever/headache)
cardiopulmonary (dyspnea/pulmonary edema)
convalescent

44

SARS

+ RNA enveloped coronavirus
Hong Kong/Toronto
from civet cats

45

MERS

Middle East respiratory syndrome
from coronavirus

46

SARS sx

flu like prodrome
lower respiratory tract