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Flashcards in Nephrology Deck (35):
1

Definition of acute kidney injury

Cr increased 50%
or Cr increased by 0.5mg/dL

2

Drugs causing prerenal azotemia (3)

NSAIDs
ACEI
cyclosporin

3

Definition of oliguria

between 100 to 500 mL/day of urinary output

4

Labs for prerenal azotemia (4)

oliguria
BUN:Cr >20:1
urine osmolality >500mOsm/kg
FEna <1%

5

Causes of nephrotoxic ATN (6)

aminoglycosides
NSAIDs
vancomycin
rhabdomyolysis
cisplatin
multiple myeloma

6

Labs for intrinsic AKI (3)

BUN:Cr < 350mOsm/kg
FEna >2%

7

Tx for different types of AKI

prerenal-IV NS
intrinsic-furosemide trial
postrenal-urology consult/catheter

8

Causes of CKD (3)

DM most common
HTN
chronic GN

9

Sx of CKD

HTN
uremia
normocytic anemia
Vit D deficiency (high phosphate, low calcium)

10

Tx for CKD

low protein diet
ACEI
smoking cessation
EPO for anemia

11

Indications for dialysis

Acidosis
Electrolytes (hyperkalemia)
Intox (EtOH, methanol)
Overload (volume)
Uremia

12

Nephrotic syndrome findings

albumin loss >3.5g/day in urine
hypoalbuminemia with edema
hyperlipidemia

13

Tx for nephrotic syndrome

ACEI
statin
diuretics
tx underlying disease

14

Causes of gross hematuria (6)

nephrolithiasis
cancer/UTI
GN
sickle cell
cyclophosphamide
analgesic nephropathy

15

(+) urine dipstick with no hematuria on UA

hemoglobinuira or myoglobinuira

16

Nephritic syndrome findings

HTN
hematuria
azotemia

17

Assc with membranous glomerulonephritis

Hep B/C
syphilis
malaria

18

Assc with IgA nephropathy

URT infection 1-5 days prior

19

Assc with membranoproliferative GN

Hep C
cryoglobulinemia

20

Causes of acute interstitial nephritis (4)

drugs most commonly
infection
sarcoid
SLE

21

Sx of acute interstitial nephritis (4)

rash
fever
eosinophilia in urine
pyuria/hematuria

22

Causes of renal papillary necrosis (4)

analgesic nephropathy most common
sickle-cell
EtOH
diabetic nephropathy

23

Renal tubular acidosis types

I-failure of H+ secretion in distal tubule
II-failure of bicarb resorption in prox tubule
IV-hypoaldosteronism

24

Assc with medullary sponge kidney

hyperparathyroidism (adenoma)

25

Tx for sickle cell nephropathy

ACEI

26

Risks for prostate cancer

age most important
black
high fat diet

27

Indications for transrectal ultrasound

abn DRE
PSA>10
PSA change over 0.75/year

28

Risks for renal cell carcinoma (4)

smoking
phenacetin analgesics
ADPKD
heavy metals

29

Risks for bladder cancer (3)

smoking #1
aniline dyes
cyclophosphamide

30

Types of testicular cancers (5)

seminoma-most common
embryonal-mets
chriocarcinoma-aggressive
Yolk sac-young boys
Leydig cell-precious puberty

31

Markers for testicular cancer

choriocarcinoma-beta hCG
embryonal-AFP

32

Testicular torsion timeframe

surgery within 6hrs

33

Causes of epididymitis

old men- E. coli
young men- gonorrhea/chlamydia

34

Normal daily urine output

800-1500mL

35

Hct change with dehydration

increase 3% per 1L fluid lost