Chapter 12 Vocab Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Chapter 12 Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12 Vocab Deck (28):
0

Motivation

A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

1

Instinct

A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

2

Drive-reduction theory

The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state(a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

3

Homeostasis

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

4

Incentives

A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

5

Optimal Arousal Theory

Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it

6

Abraham Maslow

Theorist who developed Hierarchy of needs

7

Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

8

Glucose

The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When it's level is low, we feel hunger

9

Set Point

The point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

10

Basal metabolic rate

The body's resting rate of energy expenditure

11

Anorexia Nervosa

An eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve

12

Bulimia Nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

13

Alfred Kinsey

First researcher who studied sexual motivation

14

Sexual Response Cycle

The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson- excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

15

Refractory Period

A resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

16

Sexual Disorder

A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

17

Estrogen

A sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

18

Testosterone

The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

19

Sexual Orientation

An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex

20

Flow

A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills

21

Industrial-Organizational Psychology

The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

22

Personnel Psychology

A subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

23

Organizational Psychology

A subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change

24

Structured Interviews

Interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applications, each of whom is rated on established scales

25

Achievement Motivation

A desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard

26

Task leadership

Goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

27

Social Leadership

Group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support