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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Vocab Deck (57):
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The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

Sensation

1

The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

Perception

2

Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information

Bottom-up processing

3

Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations

Top-down processing

4

Fatigue of perception, complete sensation but incomplete perception inability to top-down process

Prosopagnosia

5

The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them

Psychophysics

6

The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time

Absolute threshold

7

A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation. Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a persons experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue

Signal detection theory

8

Below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness

Subliminal

9

The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing ones perception, memory, or response

Priming

10

The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference

Difference threshold

11

The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage

Weber's Law

12

Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

Sensory adaptation

13

Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.

Transduction

14

The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the shirt blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission

Wavelength

15

The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth

Hue

16

The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the waves amplitude

Intensity

17

The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

Pupil

18

A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

Iris

19

The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

Lens

20

The process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

Accommodation

21

The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

Retina

22

The sharpness of vision

Acuity

23

A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than near objects distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina

Nearsightedness

24

A condition in which far away objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina

Farsightedness

25

Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond

Rods

26

Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

Cones

27

...

Bipolar Cells

28

...

Ganglion Cells

29

The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

Optic nerve

30

The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there

Blind spot

31

The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster

Fovea

32

Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

Feature detectors

33

The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brains natural mode of information processing for many functions.

Parallel processing

34

Blindness in part of the field of vision due to destruction in the visual cortex

Blindsight

35

The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue-which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color

Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory

36

The theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision.

Opponent-process theory

37

Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object

Color constancy

38

The sense or act of hearing

Audition

39

The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time

Frequency

40

A tones experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency

Pitch

41

The chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochleas oval window

Middle ear

42

A coiled, bony, fluid filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses

Cochlea

43

...

Cilia

44

The innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs

Inner ear

45

In hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochleas membranes is stimulated

Place theory

46

In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense it's pitch

Frequency theory

47

Heating loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea

Conduction hearing loss

48

Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochleas receptor cells or to the auditory nerves, also called nerve deafness

Sensorineural hearing loss

49

A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

Cochlear implants

50

The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain

Gate-control theory

51

The principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences it's taste

Sensory interaction

52

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McGurk Effect

53

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Olfaction

54

...

Synesthesia

55

The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

Kinesthesis

56

The sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance

Vestibular Sense