Chapter 4 Vocab part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Vocab part 1 Deck (29):
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Developmental Psychology

A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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Zygote

The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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Embryo

The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the 2nd month

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Fetus

The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

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Teratogens

Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions

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Rooting reflex

A baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple

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Habituation

Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

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Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

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Jean Piaget

Best known for studying the cognitive development in children, using careful observation

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Schemas

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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Assimilation

Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas

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Accommodation

Adapting one's current understandings to incorporate new information

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Cognition

All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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Sensorimotor Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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Object Permanence

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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Preoperational Stage

The stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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Conservation

The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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Egocentrism

The preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

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Theory of mind

Peoples ideas about their own and others' mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict

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Autism

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of other's states of mind

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Concrete operational stage

The stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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Formal operational stage

The stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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Harry Harlow

Studied attachment and nourishment with monkeys

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Stranger Anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

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Mary Ainsworth

Studied attachment differences by observing mother-infant pairs at home during their first 6 months

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Attachment

An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and slowing distress on separation

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Secure Attachement

Children play and explore comfortably in the mother's presence, are distressed she she leaves, and seek contact when she returns

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Insecure Attachement

Children explore less in the mother's presence and may cling to her, cry loudly when she leaves, and remain upset or act indifferent when she returns