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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Vocab Deck (31):
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Diathesis Stress Model

is a psychological theory that explains behavior as both a result of biological and genetic factors ("nature"), and life experiences ("nurture"). This theory is often used to describe the pronunciation of mental disorders, like schizophrenia, that are produced by the interaction of a vulnerable hereditary predisposition, with precipitating events in the environment

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4 D's

Deviant- different, extreme, unusual (any deviation from the majority)
Distressful- unpleasant or upsetting to the individual
Dangerous- threatening to the persons well-being or to the safety of others
Dysfunctional- disruptive to the persons ability to conduct daily activities (those that fail to adjust)

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Psychological Disorder

Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns

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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

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Medical model

The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of the their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital

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DSM-IV

The American psychiatric associations diagnostic and statistical Manual of mental disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. Presently distributed in an updated "text revision"

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Labeling Effects

When labels can stigmatize a person by biasing others' interpretations and perceptions of past and present behaviors and by affecting the way people react to the labeled person

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Anxiety Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

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Generalized anxiety disorder

An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

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Panic disorder

An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

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Phobic Disorder

An anxiety disorder marked by persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation

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Agoraphobia

A fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes

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Specific Phobia

Fear of a specific object

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Social Phobia

An intense fear of being scrutinized by others. May avoid speaking up, eating out, going to parties- or will sweat, tremble, or have diarrhea when doing so

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Obsessive-compulsive disorder

An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts(obsessions) and/or actions(compulsions)

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Post-traumatic stress disorder

An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jump anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for 4 weeks or more after a traumatic experience

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Dissociative Disorder

Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

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Dissociative identity disorder

A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. AKA multiple personality disorder

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Mood disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

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Major Depressive disorder

A mood disorder in which a person experiences in the absence of drugs of a medical condition, tow or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

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Dysthymic Disorder

A down-in-the-dumps mood that fills most of the day, nearly every day, for 2 years or more

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Mania

A mood disorder marked by hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

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Bipolar Disorder

A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and the lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

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Schizophrenia

A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

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Delusions

False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

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Hallucinations

Most common hallucination for a schrzophrenic person is hearing. -Flat affect: they withdraw, no emotion

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Paranoid

Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity

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Disorganized

Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion

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Catatonic

Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements.

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Personality Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

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Antisocial Personality Disorder

A personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless of a clever com artist