Chapter 15 Vocab Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Vocab Part 1 Deck (26):
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Personality

An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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Sigmund Freud

Focused largely on the role of our unconscious and our childhood experiences in determining our personality

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Free association

In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

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Psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

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Unconscious

According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware

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Id

Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification

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Ego

The largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the Id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

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Superego

The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations

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Psychosexual stages

The childhood stages of development during which, according to Freud, the Id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

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Oedipus complex

According to Freud, a boys sexual desire toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

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Identification

The process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

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Fixation

According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

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Defense mechanism

In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

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Repression

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

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Regression

Psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

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Reaction formation

Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings

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Projection

Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

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Rationalization

Defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for ones actions

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Displacement

Psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object of person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet

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Alfred Adler

Well known for the inferiority complex: a pattern of avoiding feelings of inadequacy rathe than trying to overcome their source. Believed we are who we are because of our childhood. Don't let kids figure things out on their own

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Karen Horney

Agreed that childhood was important, but that social, not sexual tensions are crucial for personality formation. Attempted to counter Freud's assumptions that women have "penis envy" and weak superegos. Argues that childhood anxiety triggers our desire for love and security

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Carl Jung

Collective unconscious: the part of the mind that contains inherited instincts, urges, and memories common to all people; believed our id, ego, and superego forces made us unique from one another

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Projective test

A personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

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Thematic Apperception Test TAT

A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

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Rorschach Inkblot Test

The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

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Collective unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history