Chapter 1 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Vocab Deck (33):
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Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.

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Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident, than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of ones beliefs and judgements

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Critical Thinking

Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence,and assess conclusions.

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Scientific Method

Explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts behaviors or events.

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Theory

Aims to explain some phenomenon and allows researchers to generate testable hypotheses with the hope of collecting data that support the theory.

An explanation of using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations

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Hypothesis

A statement that expresses a relationship between two variables.

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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Operational Definitions

An explanation of how variables are measured

A statement of the procedures(operations) used to define research variables. It allows us to measure variables

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Replicate

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

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Case Study

A research method used to get a full, detailed picture of one participant or a small group of participants

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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Survey

Involves asking people to fill out surveys

A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

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False Consensus Effect

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

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Population

The group from which a sample is selected

All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

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Random Sample

A method of seeking a sample from a population

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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Naturalistic Observations

Research method that involves observing participants in their natural habitats without interacting with them

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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Correlation

A statistical measure of a relationship between two variables

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

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Scatterplots

A graph of correlated data

A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables

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Illusory Correlation

The perception of a relationship where none exists

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Experiment

The only research method that can show a casual relationship

When an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

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Double-Blind Procedure

Method followed such that neither the participants nor the researcher are aware of who is in the experimental or control groups while the experiment is going on

the participant and the staff are ignorant about whether the participant has received the treatment or a placebo

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Placebo Effect

Any effect on behaviors by expectations; any affect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent

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Experimental Condition

The participants who are exposed to the independent variable

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Control Condition

The participants that serve as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

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Random Assignment

The process by which participants are put into either an experimental or a control group

Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

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Independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated

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Dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

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Mode

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

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Mean

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

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Median

The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

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Range

The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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Standard Deviation

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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Statistical Significance

5% is the cutoff for statistically significant results. In a statistically significant experimental result, the is less than a 5% chance that the results occurred by chance

A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

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Culture

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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Experimenter Bias

The unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis