Chapter 8 Vocab Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Vocab Part 1 Deck (25):
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Learning

A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience

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Associative learning

Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and it's consequences

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Classical conditioning

A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neural stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus

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Behaviorism

The view that psychology should be an objective science (most research psychologists today agree with) that studies behavior without reference to mental processes (most research psychologists today do not agree with)

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Ivan Pavlov

Associated with classical conditioning

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Unconditioned stimulus

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response

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Unconditioned response

In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth

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Neutral Stimulus

Stimulus that does not elicit any response

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Conditioned Stimulus

In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response

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Conditioned response

In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

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Acquisition

The initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neural stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neural stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

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Extinction

The diminishing of a conditioned response, occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

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Spontaneous recovery

The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

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Generalization

The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

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Discrimination

In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus

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John Garcia

Classical conditioning
Taste aversion

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Taste Aversion

Acquisition only takes one time because the response is so strong

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Operant Conditioning

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

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Respondent behavior

Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning

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Operant Behavior

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

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B.F. Skinner

Associated with Operant conditioning
Operant chamber
Behaviorisms most influential and controversial figure

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Edward L. Thorndike

Credited for the theory Law of Effect

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Law of effect

Throndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

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Operant Chamber

A chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research

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Shaping

An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior