Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Chapter 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (31):
0

Intelligence

the ability to learn from experience; solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

1

Reification

Viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing

2

Factor analysis

A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test that measure common ability (G-Factor: general mental ability)

3

Charles Spearman

First intelligence factor (G-Factor)
Helped develop the factor analysis approach
Believed that if you were intelligent you would posses all the traits

4

General intelligence

Factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

5

L.L. Thurstone

Intelligence comes in different packages: seven areas
Believed factor analysis revealed seven independent mental abilities
(Word Fluency, Verbal Comprehension, Spatial Ability, Perceptual Speed, Numerical Ability, Inductive Reasoning, and Memory)

6

Howard Gardner

Believed intelligence comes in multiple forms; notes that brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not others (people with savant syndrome excel in abilities)

7

Savant Syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing

8

Robert Sternberg

Triarchial Theory, three intelligences rather than eight
(Analytical Intelligence, Creative Intelligence, and Practical Intelligence)

9

Emotional Intelligence

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

10

Creativity

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

11

Intelligence Test

a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.

12

Alfred Binet

Given credit for devising the first intelligence test

13

Mental Age

a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance

14

Lewis Terman

Revision of the IQ test, new age norms and extending the upper end of the tests range from teens to adults; Stanford-Binet

15

Stanford-Binet

the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test

16

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100

17

Aptitude Tests

a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn

18

Achievement Tests

test designed to assess what a person has learned

19

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests

20

Standardization

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group

21

Flynn Effect

The substantial increase in average scores on intelligence tests all over the world

22

Normal Curve

symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes

23

Reliability

the extent to which a test yields consistent result, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting

24

Vaildiity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

25

Content Vailidity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

26

Criterion

the behavior that a test is designed to predict; thus the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity

27

Predictive Validity

success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior

28

Mental Retardation

a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound

29

Down Syndrome

condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup

30

Stereotype Threat

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype