Chapter 2 Vocab part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Vocab part 1 Deck (45):
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Phrenology

A theory that claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and our character traits

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Biological Psychology

A branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior

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Dendrites

Branching extensions of neurons
The bushy branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

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Axon

The extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body
Ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscle glands

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In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from...... of a single neuron

Dendrites to the cell body to the axon

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The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased in...

Myelin sheath

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A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron

Action potential

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The slowdown of a neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of

Myelin sheath

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The depolarization of a neural membrane can create

Action potential

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Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took more time to travel a neural pathway than he might have anticipated. His observations provided evidence for the existence of

Synaptic gaps

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The chemical messengers released if other spatial junctions between neurons are called

Neurotransmitters

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Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor site as

Endorphins

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Neuron

A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

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Myelin Sheath

a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

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Action Potential

A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axons membrane

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Threshold

The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

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Synapse

The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap

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Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether, that neuron will generate a neural impulse

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ACH: Acetylcholine

A neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and alsoI triggers

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Dopamine

Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

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Serotonin

Influences mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal

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Endorphins

"Morphine within" natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure

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Nervous system

The body's speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system


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Central nervous system

The brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral nervous system

The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system and the rest of the body

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Nerves

Neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons which are part of the peripheral nervous system connect the nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

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Sensory neurons

Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system

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Motor neurons

Neurons that carry outgoing information from the ventral nervous system to the muscles and glands

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Interneurons

Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

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Somatic nervous system

The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. (Skeletal nervous system)

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Autonomic Nervous system

The part of the peripheral nervous system that contains the glands and the muscles of the internal organs.

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Sympathetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

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Parasympathetic nervous system

The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

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Reflex

A simple automatic inborn response to a sensory stimulus

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Lesions

Tissue destruction. A Brian lesion is naturally or experimentally caused as destruction of brain tissue

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Neural networks

Interconnected neural cells. Networks can learn as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results.

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Endocrine system

The body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

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Hormones

Chemical messengers mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another

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Adrenal glands

A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidney. The adrenal secrete the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which help to arouse the body in times of stress

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Pituitary glands

The endocrine systems most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

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EEG

Electroencephalogram, an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brains surface. Measured by electrodes

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PET Scan

Position emission tomography, a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

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MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging, a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to,produce computer generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue

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fMRI

Functional magnetic resonance imaging, a technique for revealing blood flow and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans

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MRI- fMRI

MRI shows brain anatomy
fMRI shows Brian function