Chapter 7 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Vocab Deck (50):
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Consciousness

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment

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Biological rhythms

Periodic physiological fluctuations

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Circadian Rhythm

The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle

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Non-Rem Sleep

???

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REM Sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active

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Alpha waves

The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

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Sleep

Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation

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Hallucinations

False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

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Delta waves

The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

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Insomnia

Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

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Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

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Sleep apnea

A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

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Night terrors

A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified;unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within 2-3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered

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Dream

A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping persons mind. Notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamers delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it

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Manifest Content

According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

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Latent Content

According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream. Functions as a safety valve.

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Dream Theories

Freud's Wish-fulfillment
Information-processing
Physiological function
Activation-synthesis
Cognitive theory

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Freud's Wish-fulfillment

Dreams provide a "psychic safety valve"- expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings- contain manifest content and a deeper layer of latent content-a hidden meaning

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Information-processing

Dreams help us sort out the days events and consolidate our memories

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Physiological function

Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways

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Activation-synthesis

REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories

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Cognitive theory

Dream content reflects dreamers' cognitive development-their knowledge and understanding

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REM rebound

The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation

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Hypnosis

A social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.

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Anton Mesmer

Credited for the popularity of hypnosis

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Posthypnotic suggestion

A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors

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Social Influence Theory

Hypnotic subjects may simply be imaginative actors playing a social role

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Theodore Barber

Credited with the Social influence theory

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Dissociation
(Divided-consciousness theory)

A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.

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Ernest Hilgard

Credited with the divided consciousness theory, or disassociation

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Age Regression

?

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Psychoactive drug

A chemical substance that affects perceptions and mood

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Tolerance

The diminishing effect with with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drugs effect

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Withdrawal

The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug

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Physical Dependence

A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

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Psychological Dependence

A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

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Addiction

Compulsive drug craving and use

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Depressants

Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions

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Barbiturates

Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement

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Opiates

Opium and it's derivatives such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

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Stimulants

Drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions

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Amphetamines

Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes

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Methamphetamines

A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels

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Ecstasy(MDMA)

A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen, produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition

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Hallucinogens

Psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distorts perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

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LSD

A powerful hallucinogenic drug, known as acid

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THC

The major active ingredient in marijuana, triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations

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Near-death experience

An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death, often similar to drug-induced hallucinations

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Dualism

The presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact

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Monism

The presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing