Chapter 2 Vocab Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Vocab Part 2 Deck (26):
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Brainstem

The oldest part and central core of the brain; beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions

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Medulla

The base of the brain stem; controls heartbeat and breathing

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Reticular formation

A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role on arousal

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Thalamus

The brains sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

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Hippocampus

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Pons

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Cerebellum

The little brain attached to the rear of the brainstem it's functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance

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Limbic System

A doughnut shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. (Hippocampus, amygdaloid, and hypothalamus)

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Amygdala

Two Lima bean sized neural clusters that are components of the lambic system and are linked to emotion

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Hypothalamus

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities, helps govern the endocrine system via he pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion

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Cerebral Cortex

The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemisphere, the body's ultimate control and information processing center

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Glial cells

Insulate the myelin sheath, part of the brain, cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

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Frontal lobes

The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements

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Occipital lobe

The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field

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Parietal lobes

The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position

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Temporal lobes

The portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear

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Motor cortex

An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

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Sensory cortex

The area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

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Association Areas

Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

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Phineus Gage

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Aphasia

Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area

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Broca's area

Controls language expression, an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

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Wernicke's Area

Controls language reception, a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression, usually in the left temporal lobe

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Plasticity

The brains capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development

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Corpus Callosum

The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

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Split Brain

A condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between them