Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (28):
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Cognition

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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Concepts

Mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

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Prototype

A mental image or best example of a category or concept

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Algorithm

Step by step procedures that guarantees a solution

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Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithm

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Insight

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

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Confirmation Bias

A tendency to search for information that confirms ones preconceptions

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Fixation

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving

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Mental Set

A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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Functional Fixedness

The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

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Representativeness Heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they see, to represent, or match, particular prototypes

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Availability Heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

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Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements

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Framing

The way an issue is posed now an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements

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Belief Bias

The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning

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Belief perseverance

Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been credited

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Language

Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

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Phoneme

The smallest distinctive sound unit

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Morpheme

Smallest unit that carries meaning; word or part of a word

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Grammar

A system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

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Semantics

Set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language, study of meaning

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Syntax

Rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

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Babbling stage

Begins at about 4 months; stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to household language

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One-word Stage

Stage in speech development, 1-2yo., during which a child speaks mostly in single words

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Two-word stage

Beginning at about 2yo., stage if speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements

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Telegraphic speech

Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words

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Noam Chomsky

One of the most famous linguists of all time

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Linguistic Determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think