Chapter 9 Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Part 1 Deck (24):
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Memory

The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

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Flashbulb Memories

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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Encoding

The processing of information into the memory system

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Storage

The retention of encoded information over time

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Retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory storage

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Sensory memory

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

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Short-term memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before the information is stored or forgotten

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Long-term memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system (knowledge, skills, and experiences)

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Working memory

Involves conscious active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory (A newer understanding of short term memory)

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Automatic processing

Unconscious encoding of identical information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

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Effortful processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

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Rehearsal

The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

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Spacing effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

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Serial position effect

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

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Visual encoding

The encoding of picture images

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Acoustic encoding

The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

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Semantic encoding

The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

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Self-reference effect

Finding personal meaning

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Imagery

Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing; especially when combined with semantic encoding

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Rosy retrospection

Recalling the high points while forgetting the the everyday moments

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Mnemonic devices

Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

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Method of Loci

A memory aid in which a person imagines them self moving through familiar locations and associates the location with a topic that needs to be remembered

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Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

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Hierarchies

Broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts