Chapter 6 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Vocab Deck (41):
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Perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

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Selective Attention

The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect

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Cocktail Party Effect

your ability to attend to only one voice among many (though let another voice speak your name and your cognitive radar will instantly bring that voice into consciousness)

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inattentional blindness

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

4

Change blindness

inattentional blindness (gorilla in room, directions)

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Change Deafness

inattentional deafness (list of challenging words, voice change)

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Choice Blindness

The failure to notice our selection of a particular stimulus has changed.

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Choice-Blindness Blindness

Exhibiting denial to failing viticim to a hypothetical experiment

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Pop-Out Phenomenon

when a strikingly distinct stimulus, such as a smiling face in a crowd of crying people, draws our attention. Not our choice.

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Illusions

reveal the ways we normally organize and interpret our sensations

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Visual Capture

the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses

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Gestalt

an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes

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Figure-ground

the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)

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Grouping

the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

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Proximity

we group nearby figures together. (we see not six separate lines, but three sets of two lines)

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Similarity

we group together figures that are similar to each other. (we see the triangles and circles as vertical columns of similar shapes, not as horizontal rows of dissimilar shapes)

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Continuity

we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones. (this pattern could be a series of alternating semicircles, but we perceive it as two continuous lines-one wavy, one straight)

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Connectedness

because they are uniform and linked, (we perceive the two dots and the line between them as a single unit)
We perceive things as uniform and linked, as a single unit

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Closure

we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object

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Depth Perception

the ability to see objects in 3-D although the images that strike the retina are 2-D; allows us to judge distance

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Visual Cliff

a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

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Binocular cues

depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes

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Retinal disparity

a binocular cue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance-the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object

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Convergence

a binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object. The greater the inward strain, the closer the object.

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Monocular cues

depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone.

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Relative Size

The one that casts the smaller retinal image is perceived as further away

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Interposition

If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer.

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Relative clarity

Light from distance objects passes through more atmosphere, we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects.

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Texture gradient

A gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine indistinct texture signals increasing distance

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Relative height

We perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away

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Relative motion

As we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move.

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Linear perspective

Parallel lines, appear to converge with distance

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Light and shadow

Nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes.

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Phi phenomenon

An illusion of movement created she two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

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Perceptual Constancy

Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change

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Perceptual adaptation

In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

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Perceptual set

A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

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Human factors psychology

A branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use

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Extrasensory perception

The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition

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Parapsychology

The study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis

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Schemes

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information